Advertisement

English-Medium Education in International Higher Education Settings

  • Emma DafouzEmail author
  • Ute Smit
Chapter
  • 176 Downloads

Abstract

The overall aim of this chapter is to illustrate how English-Medium Education in Multilingual University Settings (EMEMUS) is a dynamic, complex and highly situated phenomenon which comes in different shapes and forms. To explore such diversity, the first part of the chapter offers a selection of case studies from higher education institutions (HEIs) in the Expanding Circle ranging from Europe to the Middle East, Japan and Latin America. These illustrative examples reveal different characteristics in terms of, for instance, language policies, academic disciplines or the societal role of English in relation to national or local languages, depicting the individual complexity of such settings. Against this backdrop, the second part of the chapter zooms out of individual cases to offer a reflection of some of the most commonly described reasons for implementing English-medium education across HEIs in a top-down fashion, from the global to the classroom level. Based on these considerations, the chapter argues for the need to provide a theoretically grounded framework that addresses, in a comprehensive and integrative manner, the inherent complexity and diversity of EMEMUS.

Keywords

Expanding Circle English-medium education Case studies Reasons for internationalisation of higher education 

References

  1. Airey, J. (2009). Science, language and literacy: Case studies of learning in Swedish university physics. Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University.Google Scholar
  2. Airey, J., Lauridsen, K. M., Räsänen, A., Salö, L., & Schwach, V. (2015). The expansion of English-medium instruction in the Nordic countries: Can top-down university language policies encourage bottom-up disciplinary literacy goals? Higher Education, 73(4), 561–576.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-015-9950-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bazo, P., Centellas, A., Dafouz, E., Fernández, A., González, D., & Pavón, V. (2017). Documento Marco de Política Lingüística Para la Internacionalización del Sistema Universitario Español [Linguistic policy for the internationalisation of the Spanish university system]. CRUE Universidades Españolas.Google Scholar
  4. Belhiah, H., & Elhami, M. (2015). English as a medium of instruction in the Gulf: When students and teachers speak. Language Policy, 14(1), 3–23.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-014-9336-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berns, M. (2009). English as lingua franca and English in Europe. World Englishes, 28(2), 192–199.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2009.01578.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolton, K., & Kuteeva, M. (2012). English as an academic language at a Swedish university: Parallel language use and the “threat” of English. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(5), 429–447.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2012.67024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradford, A. (2013). English-medium degree programs in Japanese universities: Learning from the European experience. Asian Education and Development Studies, 2(3), 225–240.  https://doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-06-2012-0016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradford, A., & Brown, H. (2018a). Final thoughts: Have we seen this before? The information technology parallel. In A. Bradford & H. Brown (Eds.), English-medium instruction in Japanese higher education: Policy, challenges and outcomes (pp. 283–288). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  9. Bradford, A., & Brown, H. (Eds.). (2018b). English-medium instruction in Japanese higher education: Policy, challenges and outcomes. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, H. (2017). Investigating the implementation and development of undergraduate English-medium instruction programs in Japan: Facilitating and hindering factors. Asian EFL Journal, 2017(1), 99–135.Google Scholar
  11. Castillo, R., & Pineda-Puerta, A. (2016). The “illusio” of the foreign language standard in a Colombian university. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 9(2), 426–450.  https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2016.9.2.8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2010). The diversity of multilingualism in education. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2010(205), 37–53.  https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.2010.038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chin Leong, P. N. G. (2017). English-medium instruction in Japanese universities: Policy implementation and constraints. Current Issues in Language Planning, 18(1), 57–67.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2016.1204053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Corrales, K. A., Paba Rey, L. A., & Santiago Escamilla, N. (2016). Is EMI enough? Perceptions from university professors and students. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 9(2), 318–344.  https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2016.9.2.4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cots, J. M., Llurda, E., & Garrett, P. (2014). Language policies and practices in the internationalisation of higher education on the European margins: An introduction. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35(4), 311–317.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2013.874430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dafouz, E. (2018). English-medium instruction and teacher education programmes in higher education: Ideological forces and imagined identities at work. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(5), 540–552.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1487926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dafouz, E., Hüttner, J., & Smit, U. (2016). University teachers’ beliefs of language and content integration in English-medium education in multilingual settings. In T. Nikula, E. Dafouz, P. Moore, & U. Smit (Eds.), Conceptualising integration in CLIL and multilingual education (pp. 123–143). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dafouz, E., Hüttner, J., & Smit, U. (2018). New contexts, new challenges for TESOL: Understanding disciplinary reasoning in oral interactions in English-medium instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 52(3), 540–563.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dafouz, E., & Smit, U. (2016). Towards a dynamic conceptual framework for English-medium education in multilingual university settings. Applied Linguistics, 37(3), 397–415.  https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. De Wit, H., Hunter, F., Howard, L., & Egron-Polak, E. (2015). Internationalisation of higher education. Brussels, Belgium: European Parliament.Google Scholar
  21. De Wit, H., Jaramillo, I. C., Knight, J., & Gacel-Ávila, J. (Eds.). (2005). Higher education in Latin America: The international dimension. Retrieved from http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/book/10.1596/978-0-8213-6209-9.
  22. Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D., & Sierra, J. M. (Eds.). (2013). English medium instruction at universities: Global challenges. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  23. Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D., & Sierra, J. M. (2014). Language friction and multilingual policies in higher education: The stakeholders’ view. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35(4), 345–360.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2013.874433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Egron-Polak, E., & Hudson, R. (2010). Internationalization of higher education: Global trends, regional perspectives (IAU 3rd Global Survey Report). Paris, France: IAU.Google Scholar
  25. Egron-Polak, E., & Hudson, R. (2014). Internationalization of higher education: Growing expectations, fundamental values (IAU 4th Global Survey Report). Paris, France: IAU.Google Scholar
  26. Engel, L., Sandström, A.-M., van der Aa, R., & Glass, A. (2014). The EAIE barometer: Internationalisation in Europe. Amsterdam: EAIE.Google Scholar
  27. Engin, M., & McKeown, K. (2017). Motivation of Emirati males and females to study at higher education in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 41(5), 678–691.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2016.115929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Erling, E. J. (2015). The relationship between English and employability in the Middle East and North Africa. Retrieved from the British Council website http://oro.open.ac.uk/44825/1/MENA%20Publication%20Erling%20Final.pdf.
  29. Fortanet-Gómez, I. (2013). CLIL in higher education: Towards a multilingual language policy. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gacel-Ávila, J. (2012). Comprehensive internationalisation in Latin America. Higher Education Policy, 25(4), 493–510.  https://doi.org/10.1057/hep.2012.9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Graddol, D. (2006). English next: Why global English may mean the end of “English as a foreign language”. London: British Council.Google Scholar
  32. Haines, K., & Dijk, A. (2016). Translating language policy into practice: Language and culture policy at a Dutch university. Language Learning in Higher Education, 6(2), 355–376.  https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2016-0018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hult, F. M., & Källkvist, M. (2016). Global flows in local language planning: Articulating parallel language use in Swedish university policies. Current Issues in Language Planning, 17(1), 56–71.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2016.1106395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hultgren, A. K., Jensen, C., & Dimova, S. (2015). English-medium instruction in European higher education: From the North to the South. In S. Dimova, A. K. Hultgren, & C. Jensen (Eds.), English-medium instruction in European higher education: English in Europe (pp. 1–15). Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  35. Hynninen, N. (2016). Language regulation in English as a lingua franca: Focus on academic spoken discourse. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Iino, M., & Murata, K. (2016). Dynamics of ELF communication in an English-medium academic context in Japan: From EFL learners to ELF users. In K. Murata (Ed.), Exploring ELF in Japanese academic and business contexts: Conceptualisation, research and pedagogic implications (pp. 111–131). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Jacobs, C. (2007). Towards a critical understanding of the teaching of discipline-specific academic literacies: Making the tacit explicit. Journal of Education, 41(1), 59–82.Google Scholar
  38. Jacobs, C. (2015). Mapping the terrains of ICLHE: A view from the South. In R. Wilkinson & M. L. Walsh (Eds.), Integrating content and language in higher education: From theory to practice (pp. 21–28). Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  39. Jenkins, J. (2014). English as a lingua franca in the international university: The politics of academic English language policy. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Jones, W., & McKeown, K. (2017). Exploring in-sessional language support at an EMI institution in the Arabian Gulf. Presented at the ICLHE Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  41. Kachru, B. B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk & H. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the world (pp. 11–30). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Knight, J. (2018). The changing landscape of higher education internationalisation—For better or worse? In D. Law & M. Hoey (Eds.), Perspectives on the internationalisation of higher education (pp. 13–19). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Kunioshi, N., & Nakakoji, H. (2018). Features, challenges and prospects of a science and engineering English-taught program. In A. Bradford & H. Brown (Eds.), English-medium instruction in Japanese higher education: Policy, challenges and outcomes (pp. 250–262). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  44. Kunioshi, N., Noguchi, J., Tojo, K., & Hayashi, H. (2016). Supporting English-medium pedagogy through an online corpus of science and engineering lectures. European Journal of Engineering Education, 41(3), 293–303.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03043797.2015.1056104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kuteeva, M. (2014). The parallel language use of Swedish and English: The question of ‘nativeness’ in university policies and practices. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35(4), 332–344.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2013.874432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kuteeva, M. (2019). Researching English-medium instruction at Swedish universities: Developments over the past decade. In K. Murata (Ed.), English-medium instruction from an English as a lingua franca perspective (pp. 46–63). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kuteeva, M., & Airey, J. (2014). Disciplinary differences in the use of English in higher education: Reflections on recent policy developments. Higher Education, 67(5), 533–549.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-013-9660-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lam, Q. K. H., & Wächter, B. (2014). Executive summary. In B. Wächter & F. Maiworm (Eds.), English-taught programmes in European higher education: The state of play in 2014 (pp. 15–24). Bonn, Germany: Lemmens Medien.Google Scholar
  49. Lanvers, U., & Hultgren, A. K. (2018). The Englishization of European education: Foreword. European Journal of Language Policy, 10(1), 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.3828/ejlp.2018.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lasagabaster, D. (2018). Fostering team teaching: Mapping out a research agenda for English-medium instruction at university level. Language Teaching, 51(03), 400–416.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444818000113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lasagabaster, D. (2015a). Language policy and language choice at European universities: Is there really a ‘choice’? European Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(2), 255–276.  https://doi.org/10.1515/eujal-2014-0024.
  52. Lasagabaster, D. (2015b). Multilingual language policy: Is it becoming a misnomer at university level? In S. Dimova, A. K. Hultgren, & C. Jensen (Eds.), English-medium instruction in European higher education: English in Europe. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  53. Lauridsen, K. M. (2017). Professional development of international classroom lecturers. In J. Valcke & R. Wilkinson (Eds.), Integrating content and language in higher education: Perspectives on professional practice (pp. 25–37). Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  54. Leask, B. (2013). Internationalizing the curriculum in the disciplines—Imagining new possibilities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 17(2), 103–118.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315312475090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leask, B. (2015). Internationalizing the curriculum. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Ljosland, R. (2011). English as an academic lingua franca: Language policies and multilingual practices in a Norwegian university. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(4), 991–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Macaro, E. (2018). English medium instruction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Macaro, E., Hultgren, A. K., Kirkpatrick, A., & Lasagabaster, D. (2019). English medium instruction: Global views and countries in focus: Introduction to the symposium held at the Department of Education, University of Oxford on Wednesday 4 November 2015. Language Teaching, 52(2), 231–248.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444816000380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Maiworm, F., & Wächter, B. (2014). Part I—The big picture. In B. Wächter & F. Maiworm (Eds.), English-taught programmes in European higher education: The state of play in 2014 (pp. 25–62). Bonn, Germany: Lemmens Medien.Google Scholar
  60. Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte de España. (2014). Strategy for the internationalisation of Spanish universities 2015–2020.Google Scholar
  61. Murata, K., & Iino, M. (2018). EMI in higher education: An ELF perspective. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. Dewey (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English as a lingua franca (pp. 400–412). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Nordic Council of Ministers. (2007). Deklaration om nordisk språkpolitik [Declaration on Nordic language policy]. Copenhagen, Denmark: Nordic Council of Ministers.Google Scholar
  63. OECD. (2017). Education at a glance 2017. Retrieved from http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2017_eag-2017-en.
  64. Onysko, A. (2016). Modeling world Englishes from the perspective of language contact. World Englishes, 35(2), 196–220.  https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Phillipson, R. (2015). English as threat or opportunity in European higher education. In S. Dimova, A. K. Hultgren, & C. Jensen (Eds.), English-medium instruction in European higher education: English in Europe (pp. 19–42). Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  66. Rose, H., & McKinley, J. (2018). Japan’s English-medium instruction initiatives and the globalization of higher education. Higher Education, 75(1), 111–129.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-017-0125-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ruiz de Zarobe, Y., & Lyster, R. (2018). Content and language integration in higher education: Instructional practices and teacher development. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(5), 523–526.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1491950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sandström, A.-M., & Neghina, C. (2017). English-taught bachelor’s programmes: Internationalising European higher education. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: The European Association for International Education (EAIA).Google Scholar
  69. Santos, A., Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2017). Attitudes and anxieties of business and education students towards English: Some data from the Basque Country. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 31(1), 94–110.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2017.1350189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schmitt, D. (2017). When language support is not enough: Integrating content and language across a university. Presented at the ICLHE Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  71. Smit, U., & Dafouz, E. (2012). Integrating content and language in higher education: An introduction to English-medium policies, conceptual issues and research practices across Europe. In U. Smit & E. Dafouz (Eds.), Integrating content and language in higher education: Gaining insights into English-medium instruction at European universities: AILA Review (pp. 1–12). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  72. Soler, J., Björkman, B., & Kuteeva, M. (2018). University language policies in Estonia and Sweden: Exploring the interplay between English and national languages in higher education. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 39(1), 29–43.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2017.1307844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tietze, S. (2004). Spreading the management gospel—In English. Language and Intercultural Communication, 4(3), 175–189.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14708470408668871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Toh, G. (2016). Extrapolating from an inquiry into curricular issues concerning the adoption of English as medium of instruction in a Japanese university situation. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 9(1), 212–237.  https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2016.9.1.9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Troudi, S., & Jendli, A. (2011). Emirati students’ experiences of English as a medium of instruction. In A. Al-Issa & L. S. Dahan (Eds.), Global English and Arabic: Issues of language, culture and identity (pp. 23–48). Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  76. Tsou, W., & Kao, S.-M. (2017a). English as a medium of instruction in higher education: Implementations and classroom practices in Taiwan. Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tsou, W., & Kao, S.-M. (2017b). Overview of EMI development. In W. Tsou & S.-M. Kao (Eds.), English as a medium of instruction in higher education: Implementations and classroom practices in Taiwan (pp. 3–18). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Valcke, J., & Wilkinson, R. (Eds.). (2017). Integrating content and language in higher education: Perspectives on professional practice. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  79. Wächter, B., & Maiworm, F. (Eds.). (2014). English-taught programmes in European higher education: The state of play in 2014. Bonn, Germany: Lemmens Medien.Google Scholar
  80. Wilkinson, R. (2013). English-medium instruction at a Dutch university: Challenges and pitfalls. In A. Doiz, D. Lasagabaster, & J. M. Sierra (Eds.), English medium instruction at universities: Global challenges (pp. 3–24). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  81. Wilkinson, R. (2014). Contrasting attitudes towards a bilingual institutional language policy under internationalization. Fachsprache, 36(1–2), 11–30.  https://doi.org/10.24989/fs.v36i1-2.1311.
  82. Wilkinson, R. (2016). Does internationalization promote multilingualism? A Dutch university study. Baltic Journal of English Language, Literature and Culture, 6, 108–123.Google Scholar
  83. Wilkinson, R. (2017). Trends and issues in English-medium instruction in Europe. In K. Ackerley, M. Guarda, & F. Helm (Eds.), Sharing perspectives on English-medium instruction (pp. 35–75). Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  84. Zayed University. (2016). Fact book, 2016–17. Retrieved from https://www.zu.ac.ae/main/files/contents/open_data/Factbook-2016-2017.pdf.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of English StudiesComplutense University of MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of English StudiesUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations