Computer-Assisted 3D Reconstruction in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

  • Mathias Martinez CoronelEmail author
  • Ismail Farag
  • Nabil A. Shallik


Cranio-maxillofacial surgery (CMF) represents a broad range of sub-specialties, such as maxillofacial oncological surgery (resection of tumors and reconstruction of the site with different types of grafts), craniofacial corrective surgery of malformations associated to syndromes (i.e., craniosynostoses, or cleft lip palate), orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis (to correct craniofacial deformities), cranio-maxillofacial trauma surgery and associated reconstructive maxillofacial surgery, and implantology. Surgical engineering in CMF surgery is present at all levels of the CMF clinical workflow, from diagnostic tools to preoperative planning, intraoperative guidance, and transfer of preoperative planning to the operative theater.

Virtual endoscopy (VE) and 3-D reconstruction can generate 3-D printed models from cranio-maxillofacial structures (soft and hard tissues) that can be used for preoperative planning, intraoperative navigation, and postoperative control. Surgery can be planned with these models with highly valuable information as the soft and hard tissue can be measured using the mirrored data set of the unaffected side; size and location of the graft can be chosen virtually. Intraoperatively, contours of transplanted tissues can be navigated to the preoperatively simulated reconstructive result. Preoperatively outlined safety margins could be exactly controlled during tumor resection. Reconstructions of oncologic and trauma patients can be designed and performed precisely as virtually planned.


3-D printed models Cranio-maxillofacial structures Frameless stereotaxy Image-guided navigation Periorbital reconstruction computer-assisted 3D reconstruction 

Supplementary material

Video 7.1

Movie showed reconstructed images resembling orthopantomogram-like images (OPG-panoramic view) using curved MPR technique (MOV 2845 kb)


  1. 1.
    Olszewski R. Surgical engineering in cranio-maxillofacial surgery: a literature review. J Healthcare Eng. 2012;3(1):53–86.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schramm A, Schon R, Rucker M, Barth E-L, Zizelmann C, Gellrich N-C. Computer-assisted Oral and maxillofacial reconstruction. J Comput Inf Technol. 2006;14(1):71–6.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schmelzeisen R, Schon R, Schramm A, Gellrich N-C. Computer-aided procedures in implantology, distraction and cranio-maxillofacial surgery. Ann R Australas Coll Dent Surg. 2003:46–9.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ewers R, Schicho K, Wagner A, Undt G, Seemann R, Figl M, Truppe M. Seven years of clinical experience with teleconsultation in craniomaxillofacial surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;10:1447–54.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rubio Serrano M, Albalat Estela S, Peñarrocha Diago M, Peñarrocha DM. Software applied to oral implantology: update. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008;13(10):E661–5.. ReviewPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heiland M, Habermann CR, Schmelzle R. Indications and limitations of intraoperative navigation in maxillofacial surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62(9):1059–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brief J, Edinger D, Hassfeld S, Eggers G. Accuracy of image-guided implantology. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2005;16(4):495–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Strong EB, Rafii A, Holhweg-Majert B, Fuller SC, Metzger MC. Comparison of 3 optical navigation systems for computer-aided maxillofacial surgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134(10):1080–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hassfeld S, Mühling J. Computer assisted oral and maxillofacial surgery – a review and an assessment of technology. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;30(1):2–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wagner A, Schicho K, Birkfellner W, Figl M, Seemann R, König F, Kainberger F, Ewers R. Quantitative analysis of factors affecting intraoperative precision and stability of optoelectronic and electromagnetic tracking systems. Med Phys. 2002;29(5):905–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Atuegwu NC, Galloway RL. Volumetric characterization of the Aurora magnetic tracker system for image-guided transorbital endoscopic procedures. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53(16):4355–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Widmann G, Stoffner R, Bale R. Errors and error management in image-guided craniomaxillofacial surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107(5):701–15.. ReviewPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malthan D, Ehrlich G, Stallkamp J, Dammann F, Schwaderer E, Maassen MM. Automated registration of partially defective surfaces by local landmark identification. Comput Aided Surg. 2003;8(6):300–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Widmann G, Stoffner R, Schullian P, Widmann R, Keiler M, Zangerl A, Puelacher W, Bale RJ. Comparison of the accuracy of invasive and noninvasive registration methods for image-guided oral implant surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2010;25(3):491–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luebbers HT, Messmer P, Obwegeser JA, Zwahlen RA, Kikinis R, Graetz KW, Matthews F. Comparison of different registration methods for surgical navigation in cranio-maxillofacial surgery. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2008;36(2):109–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee JD, Huang CH, Wang ST, Lin CW, Lee ST. Fast-MICP for frameless image-guided surgery. Med Phys. 2010;37(9):4551–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ewers R, Schicho K, Truppe M, Seeman R, Reichwein A, Figl M, Wagner A. Computer-aided navigation in dental implantology: 7 years of clinical experience. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;62(3):329–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nijmeh AD, Goodger NM, Hawkes D, Edwards PJ, McGurk M. Image-guided navigation in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;43(4):294–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bell RB. Computer planning and intraoperative navigation in cranio-maxillofacial surgery. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2010;22(1):135–56.. ReviewPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Casap N, Wexler A, Eliashar R. Computerized navigation for surgery of the lower jaw: comparison of 2 navigation systems. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66(7):1467–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Voss PJ, Leow AM, Schulze D, Metzger MC, Liebehenschel N, Schmelzeisen R. Navigation-guided resection with immediate functional reconstruction for high-grade malignant parotid tumour at skull base. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38(8):886–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lübbers HT, Jacobsen C, Könü D, Matthews F, Grätz KW, Obwegeser JA. Surgical navigation in cranio-maxillofacial surgery: an evaluation on a child with a cranio-facio-orbital tumour. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;49(7):532–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Feichtinger M, Aigner RM, Santler G, Kärcher H. Case report: fusion of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) images for image-guided endoscopic navigation in maxillofacial surgery: clinical application of a new technique. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2007;35(6–7):322–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Feichtinger M, Pau M, Zemann W, Aigner RM, Kärcher H. Intraoperative control of resection margins in advanced head and neck cancer using a 3-D-navigation system based on PET/CT image fusion. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2010;38(8):589–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yu HB, Shen GF, Zhang SL, Wang XD, Wang CT, Lin YP. Navigation-guided gap arthroplasty in the treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38(10):1030–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wagner A, Undt G, Watzinger F, Wanschitz F, Schicho K, Yerit K, Kermer C, Birkfellner W, Ewers R. Principles of computer-assisted arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint with optoelectronic tracking technology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001;92(1):30–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Belli E, Matteini C, D’Andrea GC, Mazzone N. Navigator system guided endoscopic intraoral approach for remodelling of mandibular condyle in Garré syndrome. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18(6):1410–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schmelzeisen R, Gellrich N-C, Schon R, Gutwald R, Zizelmann C, Schramm A. Navigation-aided reconstruction of medial orbital wall and floor contour in cranio-maxillofacial reconstruction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004:753–7.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marple BF. Ludwig angina. A review of current airway management. Arch Otolaryngol Head and Neck Surg. 1999;125:596–9.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chow AW. Submandibular space infections (Ludwig’s angina). Uptodate (serial on internet); 2013.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Saifeldeem K, Evans R. Ludwig angina. Emerg Med J. 2004;21:242–3.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Athanassiadi KA. Infections of the mediastinum. Thorac Surg Clin. 2009;19:37–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kattan B, Snyder HS. Lingual artery hematoma resulting in upper airway obstruction. J Emerg Med. 1991;9(6):421–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shukowsky WP. Zur atiologie des stridor inspiratorious congenitus. Jahrb Kinderheilk. 1911;73:459–74.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Oeconomopolous CT. The value of glossopexy in Pierre Robin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1960;262:1267–8.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carey JC, Fineman RM, Ziter FA. The robin sequence as consequence of malformation, dysplasia and neuromuscular syndromes. J Pediatr. 1982;101:858–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Parsons RW, Smith DJ. A modified tongue-lip adhesion for Pierre Robin anomalad. Cleft Palate J. 1980;17:144–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cohen MM Jr. Robin sequences and complexes: causal heterogeneity and pathogenetic/phenotypic variability. Am J Med Genet. 1999;84:311–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Randall P. The Robin sequence: micrognatia and glossoptosis with airway obstruction. In: McCarthy JG, editor. Plastic surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1990. p. 3123–34.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tomaski SM, Howard GH, Aaal HM. Airway obstruction in the Pierre Robin sequence. Laryngoscope. 1995;105:111–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    St-Hilaire H, Buchbinder D. Maxillofacial pathology and management of Pierre Robin sequence. Otolaryng Clin N Am. 2000;33:1241–56.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dykes EH, Raine PAM, Arthur DS, Drainer IK, Young DG. Pierre Robin syndrome and pulmonary hypertension. J Pediatr Surg. 1985;20:49–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Benjamin B, Walker P. Management of airway obstruction in the Pierre Robin sequence. Int J Pediatr Otorhi. 1991;22:29–37.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Spranger JW, Benirschke K, Hall JG, et al. Errors in morphogenesis: concepts and terms. J Pediatr. 1982;100:160–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Berger JC, Clericuzio CL. Pierre Robin sequence associated with first trimester fetal tamoxifen exposure. Am J Med Genet A. 2008;146A:2141–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Abuzinada S, Alyamani A. Management of Pierre Robin sequence our experience and long-term follow-up. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;46(Supplement 1):252.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Miloro M. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis for pediatric airway management. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68(7):1512–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mofid MM, Manson PN, Robertson BC, Tufaro AP, Elias JJ, Vander CA, Kolk. Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis: a review of 3278 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;108(5):1103–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Martínez A, Fernández R, Espana A, García B, Capitan L, Monsalve F. Changes in airway dimensions after mandibular distraction in patients with Pierre-Robin sequence associated with malformation syndromes. Revista Espanola de Cirugia Oral y Maxilofacial (English Edition). 2015;37(2):71–9.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Guven O. A clinical study on temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2000;27:27–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zhi K, Ren W, Zhou H, Gao L, Zhao L, Hou C, Zhang Y. Management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis: 11 years’ clinical experience. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;108:687–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Baykul T, Aydin MA, Nasir SN, Toptas O. Surgical treatment of posttraumatic ankylosis of the TMJ with different pathogenic mechanisms. Eur J Dent. 2012 Jul;6(3):318–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Neelima A. Ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and its management. Ch No.22. Text book of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 1st edn; 2002. pp. 207–219.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Soak I, et al. Nonsyndromal true congenital ankylosis of tempromandibular joint- a case report. West Indian Med J. 2006;55(6):444.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Falcão I, Carrazzone M, Da Silva L, Pereira S, Pichi L, Ferreira A. 3D morphology analysis of TMJ articular Eminence in magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Dentistry. 2017;Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hayakawa Y, Kober C, Otonari-Yamamoto M, Otonari T, Wakoh M, Sano T. An approach for three–dimensional visualization using high–resolution MRI of the temporomandibular joint. Dentomax Radiol. 2007;36(6):341–7.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zheng J, Fan B, Zhong X, Qu P, Liu P, Guo K, Zhao H, Wang Y, Zhen J, Zhang S, Yang C. Application of computer-assisted surgical simulation for temporomandibular joint reconstruction with costochondral graft. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2016;9(9):17650–6.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Movahed R, Wolford LM. Protocol for concomitant temporomandibular joint custom-fitted total joint reconstruction and orthognathic surgery using computer-assisted surgical simu-lation. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2015;27:37–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Benumof JL. Management of the difficult adult airway. Aneaesthesiology. 1991;75:1087–110.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lin HS, Wang D, Fee WE, Goode RL, Terris DJ. Airway management after maxillectomy: routine tracheostomy is unnecessary. Laryngoscope. 2003;113(6):929–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Halfpenny W, McGurk M. Analysis of tracheotomy-associated morbidity after operations for head and neck cancer. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000;38(5):509–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Brickman DS, Reh DD, Schneider DS, Bush B, Rosenthal EL, Wax MK. Airway management after maxillectomy with free flap reconstruction. Head Neck. 2013;35(8):1061–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cameron M, Corner A, Diba A, Hankis M. Development of a tracheotomy scoring system to guide airway management after major head and neck surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38(8):846–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Supkis DE Jr, Dougherty TB, Nguyen DT, Cagle CK. Anesthestic management of the patient undergoing head and neck cancer surgery. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 1998;36:21–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Yanga W, Shan W, Yan Y, Curtina JP, Dub R, Zhang C, Chen X, Su Y. Three-dimensional printing of patient-specific surgical plates in head and neck reconstruction: a prospective pilot study. Oral Oncol. 2018;78:31–6.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chan HH, Siewerdsen JH, Vescan A, Daly MJ, Prisman E, Irish JC. 3-D rapid prototyping for otolaryngology-head and neck surgery: applications in image-guidance, surgical simulation and patient-specific Modeling. PLoS One. 2015;10(9):e0136370.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Barak M, Bahouth H, Leiser Y, El-Naaj IA. Airway management of the patient with maxillofacial trauma: review of the literature and suggested a clinical approach. Biomed Res Int. 2015Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Committee on Trauma American College of Surgeons. Advanced Trauma Life Support for Doctors ATLS. 8th edn, American College of Surgeons, Chicago, Ill; 2008.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hutchison I, Lawlor M, Skinner D. ABC of major trauma. Major maxillofacial injuries. BMJ. 1990;301:595–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Garcia A. Critical care issues in the early management of severe trauma. Surg Clin N Am. 2006;86(6):1358–87.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jamal BT, Diecidue R, Qutub A, Cohen M. The pattern of combined maxillofacial and cervical spine fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67(3):559–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rahman SA, Chandrasala S. When to suspect head injury or cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma? Dental Res J. 2014;II(3):336–44.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kill C, Risse J, Wallot P, Seidl P, Steinfeldt T, Wulf H. Videolaryngoscopy with glidescope reduces cervical spine movement in patients with unsecured cervical spine. J Emerg Med. 2013;44(4):750–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bhardwaj N, Jain K, Rao M, Mandal AK. Assessment ofcervical spine movement during laryngoscopy with Macintoshand Truview laryngoscopes. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2013;29(3):308–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Apfelbaum JL, Hagberg CA, Caplan RA. Practice guidelines for management of the difficult airway: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Forceon Management of the difficult air way. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(2):251–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hamaekers AE, Henderson JJ. Equipment and strategies for emergency tracheal access in the adult patient. Anaesthesia. 2011;66(2):65–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kearney PA, Griffen MM, Ochoa JB, Boulanger BR, Tseui BJ, Mentzer RM Jr. A single-center-8-year experience with percutaneous dilational tracheostomy. Ann Surg. 2000;231(5):701–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Vezina M-C, Trepanier CA, Nicole PC, Lessard MR. Complications associated with the Esophageal-tracheal comb tube in the pre-hospital setting. Can J Anesth. 2007;54(2):124–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Peterson GN, Domino KB, Caplan RA, Posner KL, Lee LA, Cheney FW. Management of the difficult airway: a closed claims analysis. Anesthesiology. 2005;103(1):33–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jahromi HE, Gholami M, Rezaei F. A randomized double-blinded placebo controlled study of four interventions for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in maxillofacial trauma surgery. J Craniofacial Surg. 2013;24(6)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Guo F, Dai J, Zhang J, Ma Y, Zhu G, Shen J, Niu G. Individualized 3-D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine. PLoS One. 2017;12(2)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Herford A, Miller M, Lauritano F, Cervino G, Signorino F, Maiorana C. Virtual surgical planning and navigation in the treatment of orbital trauma. Chin J Traumatol. 2017 Feb;20(1):9–13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Efanov J, Roy A, Huang K, Borsuk D. Virtual surgical planning: the pearls and pitfalls. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2018;6(1):e1443.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Antony AK, Chen WF, Kolokythas A, Weimer KA, Cohen MN. Use of virtual surgery and stereolithography-guided osteotomy for mandibular reconstruction with the free fibula. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128(5):1080–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Roser SM, Ramachandra S, Blair H, et al. The accuracy of virtual surgical planning in free fibula mandibular reconstruction: comparison of planned and final results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68(11):2824–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hirsch DL, Garfein ES, Christensen AM, Weimer KA, Saddeh PB, Levine JP. Use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to produce orthognathically ideal surgical outcomes: a paradigm shift in head and neck reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67(10):2115–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chim H, Wetjen N, Mardini S. Virtual surgical planning in craniofacial surgery Harvey. Semin Plast Surg. 2014 Aug;28(3):150–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hanasono MM, Jacob RF, Bidaut L, Robb GL, Skoracki RJ. Midfacial reconstruction using virtual planning, rapid prototype modeling, and stereotactic navigation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126(6):2002–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Saad A, Winters R, Wise MW, Dupin CL, St Hilaire H. Virtual surgical planning in complex composite maxillofacial reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;132(3):626–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Doscher ME, Garfein ES, Bent J, Tepper OM. Neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis: converting virtual surgical planning into an operative reality. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;78(2):381–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Haq J, Patel N, Weimer K, Matthews NS. Single stage treatment of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint using patient-specific total joint replacement and virtual surgical planning. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;52(4):350–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chandran R, Keeler GD, Christensen AM, Weimer KA, Caloss R. Application of virtual surgical planning for total joint reconstruction with a stock alloplast system. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69(1):285–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chim H, Amer H, Mardini S, Moran SL. Vascularized composite allotransplantation in the realm of regenerative plastic surgery. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89(7):1009–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Eggers G, Mühling J, Marmulla R. Image-to-patient registration techniques in head surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35(12):1081–95.. ReviewPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mathias Martinez Coronel
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ismail Farag
    • 1
  • Nabil A. Shallik
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Craniomaxillofacial DepartmentHamad Medical CorporationDohaQatar
  2. 2.Universidad de Carabobo, School of DentistryValenciaVenezuela
  3. 3.Department of Clinical AnesthesiologyWeill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMQ)DohaQatar
  4. 4.Department of Anesthesiology, ICU and Perioperative MedicineHamad Medical CorporationDohaQatar
  5. 5.Department of Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care, Faculty of MedicineTanta UniversityTantaEgypt

Personalised recommendations