Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Breeding

  • Luz Rayda Gomez-PandoEmail author
  • Enrique Aguilar-Castellanos
  • Martha Ibañez-Tremolada


Quinoa is native to the Andean Region, with recognized nutritional value and the ability to thrive in marginal agricultural environments. It is a very important alternative crop to face the negative environmental changes that are reducing yield and quality, and causing food insecurity during recent decades. This species has been cultivated in the Andean Region for thousands of years in very marginal environments from sea level in Chile to more than 4000 m elevation in the Peruvian and Bolivian Altiplano. High genetic diversity of quinoa ecotypes made it possible to yield quality grains in soil pH values of 4.5–9.5> in diverse annual rainfall 200–2000 mm, and at very low temperatures in flowering and grain-filling periods, with diseases, insect epidemics and other negative management practices. The recognition of quinoa values since the 1980s has increased significantly the demand and interest from other countries to grow this plant in marginal lands. Cultivation has increased notably in the Andean Region, in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa, with very good agricultural and industrial results. Current wide distribution and planting in large-scale farms have shown limitations because growth conditions are different from those typical in the origin center. High susceptibility to biotic factors (diseases, pests and weeds), low heat tolerance, damage by long photoperiods, lack of appropriate culture technologies for different farming systems, and limitations in food elaboration and industrial uses, are major limitations. These can be overcome with new improved varieties using the highly diverse germplasm and appropriate breeding methodology; and employing appropriate agronomic practices for sustainable production to ensure food security in marginal lands and environments.


Abiotic factors Adaptation Chenopodium Germplasm Nutritious value Quinoa Tolerance 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luz Rayda Gomez-Pando
    • 1
    Email author
  • Enrique Aguilar-Castellanos
    • 1
  • Martha Ibañez-Tremolada
    • 1
  1. 1.Cereals and Native Grains Research Program, Agronomy FacultyNational Agricultural UniversityLimaPeru

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