Advertisement

The Structure of the Trial Balance

  • Marina GurskayaEmail author
  • Mikhail Kuter
  • Ripsime Bagdasaryan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS, volume 78)

Abstract

The given paper considers the characteristic features of the early Trial Balances formation in Francesco di Marco Datini’s companies in Pisa. Special attention is paid to the activities of the First (1392–1394) and Second (1394–1395) companies. The procedure for the formation of the Trial Balance in these companies and its structure are described in detail. It has been noted that, primarily, indicators from Entrata e Uscita and Memoriale were transferred to “Debtors” side of the Trial Balance. Then, balances of personal accounts of debtors were transferred from the Ledger. And the balances of Merchandise accounts were transferred last of all. Consequently, the indicators on the Debit side of the Trial Balance were placed in order of liquidity decreasing—money, accounts receivable, goods for sale. On the Credit side of the Trial balance, the first indicator was presented in the reserve being created out of pre-distribution profit. Then, the balances of personal accounts of creditors were transferred. The last entry (either in the debit or in the credit) presented the difference between “Debit” and “Credit”. The research method is archival, using logical-analytical modelling of sets of accounting books, related to the research periods. This method is used in the use of modern digital technologies, which are the most important tool in research in the field of accounting history.

Keywords

Medieval accounting Archival materials Trial balance Companies of Datini 

References

Primary

  1. Archivio di Stato di Prato, Prato, AS, D., Fondaco di Pisa, Company Francesco di Marco Datini e Manno d’Albizo Degli Agli, Libri Grandi, 1392–1394, №361Google Scholar
  2. Archivio di Stato di Prato, Prato, AS, D., Fondaco di Pisa, Company Francesco di Marco Datini e Manno d’Albizo Degli Agli, Libri Grandi, 1394–1395, №362Google Scholar
  3. Archivio di Stato di Prato, Prato, AS, D., Fondaco di Pisa, Company Francesco di Marco Datini e Manno d’Albizo Degli Agli, Libri Grandi, 1395–1396, №363Google Scholar
  4. Archivio di Stato di Prato, Prato, AS, D., Fondaco di Pisa, Company Francesco di Marco Datini e Manno d’Albizo Degli Agli, Memoriale, 1394–1395, №373Google Scholar
  5. Archivio di Stato di Prato, Prato, AS, D., Fondaco di Pisa, Company Francesco di Marco Datini e Manno d’Albizo Degli Agli, Libri minori e speciali/ Saldi di ragione - Quaderni di ragionamento, 1395, №1164Google Scholar

Secondary

  1. Alfieri, V.: La partita doppia applicata alle scritture delle antiche aziende mercantili veneziane. Paravia e Comp, Torino (1891)Google Scholar
  2. Alfieri, V.: La partita doppia applicata alle scritture delle antiche aziende mercantili veneziane. V. Alfieri, Roma (1911)Google Scholar
  3. Alfieri, V.: Commemorazione di Fabio Besta. Tipografia dell’Unione Arti Grafiche, Città di Castello (1922)Google Scholar
  4. Besta, F.: La ragioneria, seconda edizione riveduta ed ampliata col concorso dei professori Vittorio Alfieri, Carlo Ghidiglia, Pietro Rigobon. Parte prima, vol. III. Vallardi, Milano (1922)Google Scholar
  5. Castellani, A.: Nuovi testi fiorentini del Dugento e dei primi del Trecento. T. 2. The ledger of Giovanni Farolfi & Company, 1299–1300, is transcribed, almost entire. Firenze (1952)Google Scholar
  6. Ceccherelli, A.: Le funzioni contabili e giuridiche del bilancio delle società medievali. Rivista Italiana di Ragioneria 14(8), 371–378 (1914a)Google Scholar
  7. Ceccherelli, A.: Le funzioni contabili e giuridiche del bilancio delle società medievali (Continuazione e fine). Rivista Italiana di Ragioneria 14(10), 436–444 (1914b)Google Scholar
  8. Ceccherelli, A.: I libri di mercatura della Banca Medici e l’applicazione della partita doppia a Firenze nel secolo decimoquarto. Bemporad, Firenze (1913)Google Scholar
  9. Ceccherelli, A.: l linguaggio dei bilanci. Formazione e interpretazione dei bilanci commerciali. Le Monnier, Firenze (1939)Google Scholar
  10. De Roover, R.: The development of accounting prior to Luca Pacioli according to the account-books of Medieval merchants. In: Littleton, A.C., Yamey, B.S. (eds.) Studies in the History of Accounting, pp. 114–174. London (1956)Google Scholar
  11. Kuter, M., Gurskaya, M., Andreenkova, A., Bagdasaryan, R.: The early practices of financial statements formation in Medieval Italy. Account. Historians J. 44(2), 17–25 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.2308/aahj-10543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuter, M., Gurskaya, M., Andreenkova, A., Bagdasaryan, R.: Asset impairment and depreciation before the 15th century. Account. Historians J. 45(1), 29–44 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kuter, M., Gurskaya, M., Bagdasaryan, R.: The correction of double entry bookkeeping errors in the late 14th century. Working Paper (2019a)Google Scholar
  14. Kuter, M., Sangster, A., Gurskaya, M.: The formation and use of a profit reserve at the end of the 14th century. Working Paper (2019b)Google Scholar
  15. Melis, F.: Aspetti della vita economica medievale (studi nell’archivio Datini di Prato). Monte dei Paschi di Siena, Siena (1962)Google Scholar
  16. Melis, F.: Storia della Ragioneria, 872 p. Cesare Zuffi, Bologna (1950)Google Scholar
  17. Pacioli, L.: Traktat o schetakh i zapisiakh [Treatise on Accounts and Records]. In: Kuter, M.I. (ed.) Finansy i statistika and Prosveshchenie-Yug, Moscow and Krasnodar (2009)Google Scholar
  18. Schar, J.F.: Buchhaltung und Bilanz (Bookkeeping and Financial Statements), 2nd edn. Berlin. (many editions, later by J.F. Schar and W. Prion, Berlin: Julius Springer, 1932) (1914)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yamey, B.S.: Luca Pacioli. Exposition of Double Entry Bookkeeping, Venice 1494. In: Yamey, B.S., Gebsattel, A. (eds.) Albrizzi Editore, Venice (1994)Google Scholar
  20. Zerbi, T.: Le Origini della partita dopia: Gestioni aziendali e situazioni di mercato nei secoli XIV e XV. Marzorati, Milan (1952)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kuban State UniversityKrasnodarRussia

Personalised recommendations