Analyzing the Usage of the Classical ITS Software Architecture and Refining It

  • Nikolaj Troels Graf von MalotkyEmail author
  • Alke Martens
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11528)


The classical ITS software architecture with four components is an old, popular architecture. We analyzed 93 ITS software architectures found in papers with regard to the classical ITS architecture to review the usage of its components, its naming of the components and the addition of new components. In the analysis we detected 13 recurring problems in these architectures. To fix this we propose two refinements to the classical ITS software architecture that should reduce the occurrences of these problems.


ITS Software architecture Evaluation 


  1. 1.
    Nkambou, R., Mizoguchi, R., Bourdeau, J.: Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clancey, W.J.: Methodology for building an intelligent tutoring system. In: Methods and Tactics in Cognitive Science (1984)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Crowley, R., Medvedeva, O.: SlideTutor: a model-tracing intelligent tutoring system for teaching microscopic. Artif. Intell. Educ. Shaping Future Learn. Intell. Technol. 97, 157 (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee, Y., Cho, J., Choi, B.-U.: An intelligent tutoring system based on a multi-modal environment for the 300-certification program of english conversation. In: Ikeda, M., Ashley, K.D., Chan, T.-W. (eds.) ITS 2006. LNCS, vol. 4053, pp. 778–780. Springer, Heidelberg (2006). Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kojima, K., Miwa, K.: Evaluation of a system that generates word problems through interactions with a user. In: Ikeda, M., Ashley, K.D., Chan, T.-W. (eds.) ITS 2006. LNCS, vol. 4053, pp. 124–133. Springer, Heidelberg (2006). Scholar
  6. 6.
    IEEE: 1484.1-2003 - Learning Technology Systems Architecture (LTSA). Learning Technology Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Self, J.: The defining characteristics of intelligent tutoring systems research: ITSs care, precisely. Int. J. Artif. Intell. Educ. (IJAIED) 10, 350–364 (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ahuja, N.J., Silla, R.: A critical review of development of intelligent tutoring systems: retrospect. Present Prospect. IJCSI 10(4), 39 (2013). 1694-0814Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Martens, A.: Centralize the tutoring process in intelligent tutoring systems. In: ICNEE (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of RostockRostockGermany

Personalised recommendations