Early Islamic Translation: Second/Eighth-Fourth/Tenth Centuries
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This chapter details the first and seventh/eighth centuries in terms of the translation movement, and more precisely, the translation movement in the Umayyad era. The translation movement was in its early stages and limited in scope. The reason for this is that those who were responsible for this movement were very few in number. Prince Khālid ibn Yazı̄d ibn Mu‘āwiya, who was mentioned in the primary sources as one of the first interested scholars of the translation movement and in its affairs, was one of the few patrons. Another Umayyad figure who shared the same interest in this movement among the successors of this era was Caliph ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, who got some medical works translated for him in particular. As for the conditions of the translation movement in the second/eighth century, and more precisely, the translation movement in the time of the two Caliphs al-Manṣūr and al-Rashı̄d, it had reached a stage of development and progress. Many books were translated by multiple translators. The translation movement from the scientific point of view in the time of al-Rashı̄d was more mature than at the time of al-Manṣūr, which led to the greatest stages of development in the third/ninth century.