• Minhyuk HwangEmail author
Part of the Critical Political Theory and Radical Practice book series (CPTRP)


The closing chapter summarizes the main arguments of the book and the implications of Fukuzawa’s theory and practice for readers in the West and the East. Hwang compares Fukuzawa’s defense of rationalism to Kant’s courageous defense of science against religious attacks. Moreover, Hwang emphasizes that bourgeois liberalism is a necessary condition for modernization. Existential politics based on “national self-determination” is, by contrast, treated as dangerous, especially where the liberal tradition is weak. The emancipatory project of Enlightenment liberalism requires unconditional support for its initial principles of individual autonomy and liberal rule of law.


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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

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