Advertisement

Progress for National Autonomy: An Outline of a Theory of Civilization (Bunmeiron no gairyaku)

  • Minhyuk HwangEmail author
Chapter
  • 75 Downloads
Part of the Critical Political Theory and Radical Practice book series (CPTRP)

Abstract

This chapter focuses on Fukuzawa’s masterpiece, An Outline of a Theory of Civilization. Keeping a more academic audience in mind, Fukuzawa tried in this work to theorize his understanding of “progress” and the difference between “barbarism” and “civilization.” In addition to introducing the idea of progress, which did not yet exist in East Asia, Fukuzawa identified ideal progress with his liberal vision of the completion of individual autonomy. The work left an enduring impact on early Meiji politics by attacking the prevailing belief in retaining the “Japanese spirit” while selectively accepting the technological novelties of Western civilization, represented by the slogan “Japanese spirit, Western practice.” Fukuzawa, instead, suggested that Japan should accept liberalism as the foundation of modernization and retain the practical side of the Japanese tradition.

References

  1. Berlin, Isaiah. 1969. Two Concepts of Liberty. In Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bloch, Ernst. 1977. Nonsynchronism and the Obligation to Its Dialectics. New German Critique 11: 22–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boaz, David. 1997. The Libertarian Reader. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  4. Bronner, Stephen Eric. 2002. A Teacher and a Friend: Henry Pachter. In Imagining the Possible: Radical Politics for Conservative Times. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 2004. Reclaiming the Enlightenment. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ellwood, Robert. 2016. Japanese Religion. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fukuzawa, Yukichi. 1969–1971. Fukuzawa Yukichi Zenshū [Complete collection of Fukuzawa Yukichi]. 22 vols. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 2007. The Autobiography of Yukichi Fukuzawa. Trans. Eiichi Kiyooka. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 2008. An Outline of a Theory of Civilization. Trans. David A. Dilworth and G. Cameron Hurst III. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 2012. An Encouragement of Learning. Trans. David A. Dilworth. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Habermas, Jürgen. 1975. Legitimation Crisis. Trans. Thomas McCarthy. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 1984. Chapter IV. From Lukacs to Adorno: Rationalization as Reification. In The Theory of Communicative Action, Volume 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society. Trans. Thomas McCarthy, 366–399. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  13. Han, Sang-il. 2004. Jaeguk ui siseon: Ilbon ui jayujuyi jishikin Yoshino Sakuzo wa Choseon munjae [Perspective of the Empire: Yoshino Sakuzo, A Japanese Liberal and the Korean Question]. Seoul: Saemulgyeol Chulpansa.Google Scholar
  14. Horkheimer, Max, and Theodor W. Adorno. 2002. Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. Trans. Edmund Jephcott. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hoston, Germaine. 1986. Marxism and the Crisis of Development in Prewar Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Irokawa, Daikichi. 1985. The Culture of the Meiji Period. Translation ed. Marius B. Jansen. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Jansen, Marius B. 2000. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  18. Jeffries, Stuart. 2016. Grand Hotel Abyss: The Lives of the Frankfurt School. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  19. Kant, Immanuel. 2006. Toward Perpetual Peace and Other Writings on Politics, Peace, and History. Trans. David L. Colclasure. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Keene, Donald. 2002. Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kim, Dae Jung. 1994. Is Culture Destiny? The Myth of Asia’s Anti-Democratic Values. Foreign Affairs 73 (6): 189–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koschmann, Victor. 1987. The Mito Ideology, Discourse, Reform, and Insurrection in Late Tokugawa Japan, 1790–1864. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  23. Legge, James. 2011. The Work of Mencius. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  24. Lenin, Vladimir Ilych. 1964. Collected Works. Vol. XXXI. Moscow: Progress Publishers.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 1966. What Is to Be Done? II. The Spontaneity of the Masses and the Class Consciousness of Social-Democracy. In Essential Works of Lenin: “What Is to Be Done?” and Other Writings, ed. Henry M. Christman, 72–91. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  26. Li, Zehou. 1979. Zhongguo jindai sixiang shilun [The History of Early Modern Chinese Thoughts]. Beijing: People’s Publishing House.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 1987. Zhongguo xiandai sixiangshi lun [The History of Modern Chinese Thoughts]. Beijing: Xinhua Shudian.Google Scholar
  28. Lukacs, Georg. 1971. History and Class Consciousness. Trans. Rodney Livingstone. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  29. Maruyama, Masao. 1974. Studies in the Intellectual History of Tokugawa Japan. Trans. Mikiso Hane. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
  30. ———. 1986–1987. Bunmeiron no gairyaku wo yomu [Reading An Outline of a Theory of Civilization]. 3 vols. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2001. Fukuzawa Yukichi no tetsugaku—hoka roppen [The Philosophy of Fukuzawa Yukichi and Six Other Essays], ed. Matsuzawa Hiroaki. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
  32. Maruyama, Masao, and Katō Shūichi. 1998. Honyaku to nihonno kindai [Translation and Japan’s Modernity]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
  33. Matsuda, Kōichiro. 2014. “Kyomōni kakeru kotoha kanōka?” [Is It Possible to Bet on a ‘Fiction’?] Gendai Sisō, Maruyama Masao Tokushū [Modern Thought: A Special Issue for Maruyama Masao]. August: 98–106.Google Scholar
  34. Matsumoto, Shigeru. 1970. Motoori Norinaga, 1730–1801. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mill, John Stuart. 2008. Considerations on Representative Government. Rockville: Serenity Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Moore, Ray A., and Donald L. Robinson. 2002. Partners for Democracy: Crafting the New Japanese State Under MacArthur. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nanda, Meera. 2003. Prophets Facing Backward: Postmodern Critiques of Science and Hindu Nationalism in India. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Nishikawa, Shunsaku. 1993. Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835–1901). Prospects: The Quarterly Review of Comparative Education (UNESCO: International Bureau of Education) XXIII (3/4): 493–506.Google Scholar
  39. Oakes, Guy. 1988. Rickert’s Value Theory and the Foundation of Weber’s Methodology. Sociological Theory 6 (1, Spring): 38–51.Google Scholar
  40. Perrin, Noel. 1979. Giving up the Gun: Japan’s Reversion to the Sword, 1543–1879. Boston: Nonpareil.Google Scholar
  41. Platt, Stephen R. 2018. Imperial Twilight: The Opium War and the End of China’s Last Golden Age. New York: Penguin Random House.Google Scholar
  42. Quinault, Roland. 2012. Gladstone and War. In William Gladstone: New Studies and Perspectives, ed. Roland Quinault, Roger Swift, and Ruth Clayton Windscheffel, 235–252. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Scheiner, Irwin. 1970. Christian Converts and Social Protest in Meiji Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  44. Schmitt, Carl. 1996. The Leviathan in the State Theory of Thomas Hobbes: Meaning and Failure of a Political Symbol. Trans. George Schwab. London: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations