India-Pakistan Crises, 1999–2016

  • Devin T. HagertyEmail author


This chapter examines four India-Pakistan crises between 1999 and 2016: the Kargil conflict of 1999, the Twin Peaks crisis of 2001–2002, the Mumbai attacks and their aftermath in 2008, and the Uri attack and subsequent Indian “surgical strikes” in 2016. I present a concise chronological narrative of each episode, focusing in particular on the nature of the Indian response to Pakistani and Pakistan-abetted subconventional aggression. In all of the crises, the Indian government opted for markedly restrained, non-escalatory responses in the face of intense domestic pressures to retaliate with punishing military force. The chapter sets the empirical stage for a comparative analysis of the explanations most often posited by scholars for New Delhi’s forbearance, which is the subject of Chap.  3.


Kargil conflict Twin Peaks crisis Mumbai attack Uri attack Nuclear weapons Cold Start Surgical strikes 

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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore CountyBaltimoreUSA

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