Carbon Capture and Storage: Most Efficient Technologies for Greenhouse Emissions Abatement

  • Pasquale Cavaliere


Steel production is a very energy-intensive process, and it requires large amounts of natural resources. In fact, energy costs account for up to 40% of the total cost in some countries. Therefore, optimizing process efficiency is one of the most effective ways to reduce energy consumption and lower costs, with the added benefit of reducing the steel industry’s impact on the environment. Iron and steel industry is the main CO2 emitter among the most CO2-intensive industrial sectors. The iron and steel industry accounts for about 19% of final energy use and about a quarter of direct CO2 emissions from the industry sector. The CO2 relevance is high due to a large share of coal in the energy mix. Unlike power plants, where CO2 is emitted from a single source, an integrated steel mill has multiple sources of CO2. The emissions are located at several stacks and occur from start to end of the iron and steel production. CCS is one of the most open fields for the reduction of greenhouse emissions in primary steelmaking. It is necessary for continuing to use fossil fuels. In the iron and steel industry, CCS faces many uncertainties regarding cost, efficiency, and technology choice. Obviously many solutions are under investigation to capture CO2 and to store it avoiding its emission in the atmosphere. Selection of capture equipment will depend on factors including CO2 capture rate, possible requirements for secondary gas treatment, energy consumption, reliability, and operational and capital costs. In the present chapter, the most innovative solutions related to energetic issues and off-gases type are described. The gas utilization depending on the plant section source and composition is underlined. The CO2 abatement potential and the various solutions costs are indicated.


CCS CCU Energy efficiency Abatement potential Costs 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Pasquale Cavaliere
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Innovation EngineeringUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly

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