Electric Arc Furnace: Most Efficient Technologies for Greenhouse Emissions Abatement

  • Pasquale Cavaliere


In the electric arc furnace, steel is produced only through scrap fusion. Scraps, direct reduced iron, pig iron, and additives are melted through high-power electric arcs formed between a cathode and the anodes. The emissions levels are normally mainly related to the indirect emissions due to the high energy consumption of the process. The EAF process has become increasingly cost and quality competitive to the integrated steel mills through process and technology innovations, which have significantly lowered power consumption and increased productivity while satisfying the customers’ quality needs of steels. The appropriate GHG reduction strategy is strongly influenced by the source of electricity generation (i.e., fossil fuel or nuclear). Reduction of indirect GHG emissions requires reducing electrical energy consumption by such methods as burner optimization, post-combustion, scrap preheating, and other process efficiency measures. Other dangerous emissions are due to inorganic compounds such as iron oxide dusts and heavy metal and to organic compounds such as PCB and PCDD/Fs. The current trend towards increased addition of fuel and oxygen has resulted in chemical energy sources supplying a greater proportion of the furnace’s energy inputs. Potential fuel sources include natural gas, carbon, hydrocarbons, and iron carbide. Scrap quality is fundamental for the process efficiency, energy consumption, and steel quality. Oxyfuel burners utilization and flue gas utilization are described in this chapter. Scrap preheating techniques are employed to reduce the energy consumption. Bottom stirring and heat recovery are discussed.


Electric arc furnace Scrap Indirect emissions Electricity Energy issues 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Pasquale Cavaliere
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Innovation EngineeringUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly

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