Basic Oxygen Furnace: Most Efficient Technologies for Greenhouse Emissions Abatement

  • Pasquale Cavaliere


The basic process of converter is to reduce the carbon content of iron produced in the blast furnace in order to obtain low-carbon steel. This operation is universally known as basic oxygen process (BOP), basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) process. The furnace is a pear-shaped furnace where the pig iron from blast furnace, and ferrous scrap, is refined into steel by injecting a jet high-purity oxygen through the hot metal in order to reduce the carbon content. Oxidizing carbon and other metalloids are a critical part of the steel refining process. Transport phenomena in this furnace are highly complex. Scrap and direct reduced iron are employed in order to reduce the off-gases impact. The CO-rich BOFG has a very high calorific power that is mainly used to enrich the BF (with sensitive lower calorific power). The gas recovery in combustion or non-combustion processes is analyzed. Recovering energy from the BOF gas involves making efficient use of both its chemical and sensible heat. Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag is a main by-product in steelmaking, and its valorization is therefore of considerable interest, from a metal-recovery perspective and from a residue-utilization perspective. The improvement of by-products reuse contributing to reduce the environmental impact of industries and to increase their competitiveness is described. Bottom gas stirring of the iron melt in the BOF converter is important for advancing the oxidation reactions and also for achieving homogeneity for composition and temperature.


Basic oxygen furnace Calorific value Slag By-products reuse Energy issues 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Pasquale Cavaliere
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Innovation EngineeringUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly

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