Blast Furnace: Most Efficient Technologies for Greenhouse Emissions Abatement

  • Pasquale Cavaliere


The traditional integrated ironmaking plant is based on blast furnace operations for the reduction of iron oxides to cast iron. Seventy percent of the steel produced globally is based on BF operations. The energy requirement for the blast furnace operation is in the order of 11.6 GJ/t hot metal. It is the highest energy consumer among all the phases of integrated steelmaking because of the high input quantity of reducing agents. So, the process control is crucial for energy efficiency. The main environmental problems are related obviously with CO2 gas production in addition to dust, wastewater from gas scrubbing, slag treatment products such as SO2 and H2S, and sludge. The BF gases have very low calorific power, so, it is mainly employed in the BF itself or in the coke ovens. The optimization of raw materials as well as various gas injections in order to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the emissions levels is largely described in the present chapter. Various solutions for the off-gases treatment such as top gas recovery turbines are shown. Hot stove control and heat recuperation systems are analyzed. Improved recovery of BF gases and NG injection are compared to traditional BF operations. The employment of fuels alternative to coke is demonstrated to be fundamental in reducing GHGs emissions. Plastic waste injection, biomass utilization, as well as carbon composite agglomerate employment are shown basing on the last scientific evidences. Top gas recycling, hydrogen use, as well as oxygen blast furnaces are described. Slag behavior and uses solutions are analyzed. Per each described solution, the energy consumption, the plant costs, and the emissions abatement efficiency were described.


Blast furnace CO2 reduction Gas treatment Oxygen injection Energy consumption 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pasquale Cavaliere
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Innovation EngineeringUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly

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