The Performance Analysis of a PV System with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System
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In remote areas, stand-alone PV systems are most common. A typical stand-alone system incorporates a PV panel, regulator, energy storage system, and load. Generally, the most common storage technology employed is the lead-acid battery because of its low cost and wide availability. PV panels are not an ideal source for battery charging; the output is unreliable and heavily dependent on weather conditions. Therefore, an optimum charge/discharge cycle cannot be guaranteed, resulting in a low battery SOC. Low battery SOC leads to sulfation and stratification, both of which shorten battery life. Batteries are commonly implemented in stand-alone PV power systems to fulfill the power mismatch between the PV power generation and the load demand. Generally, a battery would encounter frequent deep cycles and irregular charging pattern due to the varying output of PV and the intermittent high-power demand of the load. These operations would shorten the battery life span and increase the replacement cost of the battery [86, 87].
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