Advertisement

Forget and Diversify: Regularized Refinement for Weakly Supervised Object Detection

  • Jeany Son
  • Daniel Kim
  • Solae Lee
  • Suha Kwak
  • Minsu Cho
  • Bohyung HanEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11364)

Abstract

We study weakly supervised learning for object detectors, where training images have image-level class labels only. This problem is often addressed by multiple instance learning, where pseudo-labels of proposals are constructed from image-level weak labels and detectors are learned from the potentially noisy labels. Since existing methods train models in a discriminative manner, they typically suffer from collapsing into salient parts and also fail in localizing multiple instances within an image. To alleviate such limitations, we propose simple yet effective regularization techniques, weight reinitialization and labeling perturbations, which prevent overfitting to noisy labels by forgetting biased weights. We also introduce a graph-based mode-seeking technique that identifies multiple object instances in a principled way. The combination of the two proposed techniques reduces overfitting observed frequently in weakly supervised setting, and greatly improves object localization performance in standard benchmarks.

Keywords

Weakly supervised learning Object detection Regularization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported in part by Naver Labs., the Institute for Information & Communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant [2014-0-00059, 2017-0-01778] and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant [NRF-2017R1E1A1A01077999, NRF-2018R1A5A1060031, NRF-2018R1C1B6001223] funded by the Korea government (MSIT).

References

  1. 1.
    Bilen, H., Pedersoli, M., Tuytelaars, T.: Weakly supervised object detection with posterior regularization. In: BMVC (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bilen, H., Vedaldi, A.: Weakly supervised deep detection networks. In: CVPR (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cho, M., Lee, K.M.: Mode-seeking on graphs via random walks. In: CVPR (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cinbis, R.G., Verbeek, J., Schmid, C.: Weakly supervised object localization with multi-fold multiple instance learning. TPAMI 39, 189–203 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dai, J., Li, Y., He, K., Sun, J.: R-FCN: object detection via region-based fully convolutional networks. In: NIPS, pp. 379–387 (2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deng, J., Dong, W., Socher, R., Li, L.J., Li, K., Fei-Fei, L.: ImageNet: a large-scale hierarchical image database. In: CVPR (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diba, A., Sharma, V., Pazandeh, A., Pirsiavash, H., Van Gool, L.: Weakly supervised cascaded convolutional networks. In: CVPR (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dietterich, T.G., Lathrop, R.H., Lozano-Pérez, T.: Solving the multiple instance problem with axis-parallel rectangles. Artif. Intell. 89(1), 31–71 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Edelsbrunner, H., Letscher, D., Zomorodian, A.: Topological persistence and simplification. Discrete Comput. Geom. 28, 511–533 (2002)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Everingham, M., Eslami, S.A., Van Gool, L., Williams, C.K., Winn, J., Zisserman, A.: The Pascal visual object classes challenge: a retrospective. IJCV 111(1), 98–136 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Everingham, M., Van Gool, L., Williams, C.K., Winn, J., Zisserman, A.: The Pascal visual object classes (VOC) challenge. IJCV 88(2), 303–338 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Girshick, R.: Fast R-CNN. In: ICCV, pp. 1440–1448 (2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Girshick, R., Donahue, J., Darrell, T., Malik, J.: Region-based convolutional networks for accurate object detection and segmentation. TPAMI 38(1), 142–158 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Han, B., Sim, J., Adam, H.: Branchout: regularization for online ensemble tracking with convolutional neural networks. In: CVPR (2017)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang, G., Sun, Y., Liu, Z., Sedra, D., Weinberger, K.Q.: Deep networks with stochastic depth. In: Leibe, B., Matas, J., Sebe, N., Welling, M. (eds.) ECCV 2016. LNCS, vol. 9908, pp. 646–661. Springer, Cham (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46493-0_39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jia, Y., et al.: Caffe: Convolutional architecture for fast feature embedding. arXiv preprint arXiv:1408.5093 (2014)
  17. 17.
    Jie, Z., Wei, Y., Jin, X., Feng, J., Liu, W.: Deep self-taught learning for weakly supervised object localization. In: CVPR (2017)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kantorov, V., Oquab, M., Cho, M., Laptev, I.: ContextLocNet: context-aware deep network models for weakly supervised localization. In: Leibe, B., Matas, J., Sebe, N., Welling, M. (eds.) ECCV 2016. LNCS, vol. 9909, pp. 350–365. Springer, Cham (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46454-1_22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kingma, D.P., Salimans, T., Welling, M.: Variational dropout and the local reparameterization trick. In: NIPS (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krasin, I., et al.: Openimages: A public dataset for large-scale multi-label and multi-class image classification (2017). Dataset available from https://storage.googleapis.com/openimages/web/index.html
  21. 21.
    Lai, B., Gong, X.: Saliency guided end-to-end learning for weakly supervised object detection. In: IJCAI (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li, D., Huang, J., Li, Y., Wang, S., Yang, M.H.: Weakly supervised object localization with progressive domain adaptation. In: CVPR (2016)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lin, T.-Y., et al.: Microsoft COCO: common objects in context. In: Fleet, D., Pajdla, T., Schiele, B., Tuytelaars, T. (eds.) ECCV 2014. LNCS, vol. 8693, pp. 740–755. Springer, Cham (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10602-1_48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu, W., et al.: SSD: single shot multibox detector. In: Leibe, B., Matas, J., Sebe, N., Welling, M. (eds.) ECCV 2016. LNCS, vol. 9905, pp. 21–37. Springer, Cham (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46448-0_2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Noh, H., You, T., Mun, J., Han, B.: Regularizing deep neural networks by noise: its interpretation and optimization. In: NIPS (2017)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oquab, M., Bottou, L., Laptev, I., Sivic, J.: Is object localization for free? - weakly-supervised learning with convolutional neural networks. In: CVPR (2015)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Redmon, J., Farhadi, A.: Yolo9000: better, faster, stronger. In: CVPR, pp. 6517–6525 (2017)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Redmon, J., Divvala, S., Girshick, R., Farhadi, A.: You only look once: unified, real-time object detection. In: CVPR, June 2016Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reed, R., Oh, S., Marks, R.: Regularization using jittered training data. In: IJCNN (1992)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ren, S., He, K., Girshick, R., Sun, J.: Faster R-CNN: towards real-time object detection with region proposal networks. In: NIPS (2015)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Seo, S., Seo, P.H., Han, B.: Confidence calibration in deep neural networks through stochastic inferences. In: arXiv preprint arXiv:1809.10877 (2018)
  32. 32.
    Sheikh, Y.A., Khan, E.A., Kanade, T.: Mode-seeking by medoidshifts. In: ICCV (2007)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shen, Y., Ji, R., Zhang, S., Zuo, W., Wang, Y.: Generative adversarial learning towards fast weakly supervised detection. In: CVPR (2018)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Simonyan, K., Zisserman, A.: Very deep convolutional networks for large-scale image recognition. CoRR abs/1409.1556 (2014)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Singh, S., Gupta, A., Efros, A.A.: Unsupervised discovery of mid-level discriminative patches. In: Fitzgibbon, A., Lazebnik, S., Perona, P., Sato, Y., Schmid, C. (eds.) ECCV 2012. LNCS, pp. 73–86. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33709-3_6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Siva, P., Russell, C., Xiang, T.: In defence of negative mining for annotating weakly labelled data. In: Fitzgibbon, A., Lazebnik, S., Perona, P., Sato, Y., Schmid, C. (eds.) ECCV 2012. LNCS, vol. 7574, pp. 594–608. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33712-3_43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Song, H.O., Lee, Y.J., Jegelka, S., Darrell, T.: Weakly-supervised discovery of visual pattern configurations. In: NIPS (2014)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Srivastava, N., Hinton, G., Krizhevsky, A., Sutskever, I., Salakhutdinov, R.: Dropout: a simple way to prevent neural networks from overfitting. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 15(1), 1929–1958 (2014)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tang, P., Wang, X., Bai, X., Liu, W.: Multiple instance detection network with online instance classifier refinement. In: CVPR (2017)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Uijlings, J.R.R., van de Sande, K.E.A., Gevers, T., Smeulders, A.W.M.: Selective search for object recognition. IJCV 104, 154–171 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wan, F., Wei, P., Jiao, J., Han, Z., Ye, Q.: Min-entropy latent model for weakly supervised object detection. In: CVPR (2018)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wan, L., Zeiler, M., Zhang, S., Le Cun, Y., Fergus, R.: Regularization of neural networks using dropconnect. In: ICML (2013)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Xie, L., Wang, J., Wei, Z., Wang, M., Tian, Q.: Disturblabel: regularizing CNN on the loss layer. In: CVPR (2016)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhang, X., Feng, J., Xiong, H., Tian, Q.: Zigzag learning for weakly supervised object detection. In: CVPR (2018)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhang, Y., Bai, Y., Ding, M., Li, Y., Ghanem, B.: W2f: a weakly-supervised to fully-supervised framework for object detection. In: CVPR (2018)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhou, B., Khosla, A., Lapedriza, À., Oliva, A., Torralba, A.: Learning deep features for discriminative localization. In: CVPR (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeany Son
    • 1
  • Daniel Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Solae Lee
    • 2
  • Suha Kwak
    • 2
  • Minsu Cho
    • 2
  • Bohyung Han
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Computer Vision Lab., ASRISeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Computer Vision Lab.POSTECHPohangKorea

Personalised recommendations