Authenticating Fake News: An Empirical Study in India

  • Gautam Prakash
  • Ravinder Kumar VermaEmail author
  • P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan
  • Arpan K. Kar
Conference paper
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 558)


Social media has become an important means for communication to promote content sharing and social networking. The usage of social media has opportunities and challenges. This article aims to highlight the ways through which individuals authenticate fake news while using social media platforms. To explore the patterns of fake news authentication on social media, online and offline surveys were conducted to get 231 responses. Social media users at the individual level authenticate fake news at two levels: internal – individual discernment and perceptiveness about news, sources and popularity of news, and external – friends and relatives, multiple external sources, formal and social spheres. This study provides insights into the usage patterns of social media platforms and ways of fake news authentication. The insights from the study might help social media platforms, governments, users and researchers.


Social media Fake news Authentication of fake news 


  1. 1.
    Kaplan, A.M., Haenlein, M.: Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Bus. Horiz. 53, 59–68 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kietzmann, J.H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I.P., Silvestre, B.S.: Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Bus. Horiz. 54(3), 241–251 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hanna, R., Rohm, A., Crittenden, V.L.: We’re all connected: the power of the social media ecosystem. Bus. Horiz. 54(3), 265–273 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mangold, W.G., Faulds, D.J.: Social media: the new hybrid element of the promotion mix. Bus. Horiz. 52(4), 357–365 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Asur, S., Huberman, B.A.: Predicting the future with social media, pp. 1–8. arXiv:1003.5699v1 [cs.CY] (2010)
  6. 6.
    Allcott, H., Gentzkow, M.: Social media and fake news in the 2016 election. J. Econ. Perspect. 31(2), 211–236 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Metzger, M.J., Flanagin, D., Eyal, A.J., Lemus, K., Mccann, R.: Credibility for the 21st century: integrating perspectives on source, message, and media credibility in the contemporary media environment. In: Communication Yearbook, vol. 27, pp. 293–335 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Castillo, C., Mendoza, M., Poblete, B.: Information credibility on Twitter. In IW3C2 WWW 2011, pp. 675–684 (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shu, K., Sliva, A., Wang, S., Tang, J., Liu, H.: Fake news detection on social media: a data mining perspective. ACM SIGKDD Explor. Newsl. 19(1), 22–36 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marchi, R.: With Facebook, blogs, and fake news, teens reject journalistic ‘objectivity’. J. Commun. Inq. 36(3), 246–262 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Turcotte, J., York, C., Irving, J., Scholl, R.M., Pingree, R.J.: News recommendations from social media opinion leaders: effects on media trust and information seeking. J. Comput. Commun. 20(5), 520–535 (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Conroy, N.J., Rubin, V.L., Chen, Y.: Automatic deception detection: methods for finding fake news. In: ASIST, pp. 1–4, November 2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferrara, E., Varol, O., Davis, C., Menczer, F., Flammini, A.: The rise of social bots. Commun. ACM 59(7), 9 (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shao, C., Ciampaglia, G.L., Varol, O., Yang, K., Flammini, A., Menczer, F.: The spread of fake news by social bots, pp. 1–16. arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.07592 (2017)
  15. 15.
    Schifferes, S., Newman, N., Thurman, N., Corney, D., Göker, A., Martin, C.: Identifying and verifying news through social media: developing a user-centred tool for professional journalists. Digit. Journal. 2(3), 406–418 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rubin, V.L., Chen, Y., Conroy, N.J.: Deception detection for news: three types of fake news. Proc. Assoc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 52(1), 1–4 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bradshaw, S., Howard, P.N.: Troops, trolls and troublemakers: a global inventory of organized social media manipulation, 2017.12 (2017)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bhaskaran, H.: Contextualizing fake news in post-truth era: journalism education in India. Asia Pac. Media Educ. 27(1), 41–50 (2017)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shelke, S., Attar, V.: Source detection of rumor in social network – a review. Online Soc. Netw. Media 9, 30–42 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Business-Standard: Petition filed before SC to put a halt to menace of fake news, March 2019Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jang, S.M., et al.: A computational approach for examining the roots and spreading patterns of fake news: evolution tree analysis. Comput. Hum. Behav. 84, 103–113 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jang, S.M., Kim, J.K.: Third person effects of fake news: fake news regulation and media literacy interventions. Comput. Hum. Behav. 80, 295–302 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brigida, M., Pratt, W.R.: Fake news. North Am. J. Econ. Financ. 42, 564–573 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tandoc Jr., E.C., Ling, R., Westlund, O., Duffy, A., Goh, D., Zheng Wei, L.: Audiences’ acts of authentication in the age of fake news: a conceptual framework. New Media Soc. 20(8), 2745–2763 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gupta, A., Lamba, H., Kumaraguru, P., Joshi, A.: Faking sandy: characterizing and identifying fake images on Twitter during hurricane sandy. In: Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 729–736 (2013)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Statista: Digital population in India as of January 2018 (in millions) 600. Internet Demographics Use (2019)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Balmas, M.: When fake news becomes real: combined exposure to multiple news sources and political attitudes of inefficacy, alienation, and cynicism. Commun. Res. 41(3), 430–454 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kapoor, K.K., Tamilmani, K., Rana, N.P., Patil, P., Dwivedi, Y.K., Nerur, S.: Advances in social media research: past, present and future. Inf. Syst. Front. 20, 531–558 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alalwan, A.A., Rana, N.P., Dwivedi, Y.K., Algharabat, R.: Social media in marketing: a review and analysis of the existing literature. Telematics Inform. 34(7), 1177–1190 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dwivedi, Y.K., Kapoor, K.K., Chen, H.: Social media marketing and advertising. Mark. Rev. 15(3), 289–309 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gautam Prakash
    • 1
  • Ravinder Kumar Verma
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan
    • 1
  • Arpan K. Kar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Management StudiesIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations