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Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  • Nikhil RanadiveEmail author
  • Sophia A. Hussen
  • Rana Chakraborty
Chapter
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

As of 2015, HIV ranked third globally among the top causes of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in children and teens aged 10–14 years and tenth among adolescents aged 15–19. Pediatricians and other primary care providers play a crucial role in the detection, treatment, and prevention of HIV. Early diagnosis can reduce secondary HIV transmission and facilitate improved clinical outcomes through early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Testing should begin with the latest generation of FDA-approved antigen/antibody immunoassays. HIV-infected individuals should receive timely ART following a thorough baseline evaluation, laboratory testing, and social history. A number of evidence-based interventions exist to prevent the transmission of HIV including condom use and preexposure prophylaxis. Providers should be mindful of the many contextual barriers that disproportionately impact HIV-infected individuals, such as housing instability and food insecurity. Individuals with low socioeconomic standing, racial minorities, and sexual minorities are particularly vulnerable.

Keywords

Human immunodeficiency virus HIV Sexual and gender minorities Adolescents Young adults Antiretroviral therapy ART Treatment as prevention Preexposure prophylaxis PrEP 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikhil Ranadive
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sophia A. Hussen
    • 2
  • Rana Chakraborty
    • 3
  1. 1.Emory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Hubert Department of Global HealthRollins School of Public Health, Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pediatric and Adolescent MedicineMayo Clinic College of MedicineRochesterUSA

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