• Sheena KandiahEmail author
  • Meena Ramchandani
  • Scott Grieshaber


Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States, with the highest prevalence in adolescents and young adults <25 years old. Incidence has been increasing in recent years. The majority of chlamydia infections are asymptomatic in both men and women. Chlamydia infection can lead to urethritis as well as serious health consequences, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased risk of HIV transmission. Screening of high-risk individuals is critically important for controlling and preventing transmission of disease. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) of mucosal surfaces and urine is the diagnostic test of choice, with high sensitivity of detecting infection. Despite expansion of testing practices, many young people are still not being tested. Public health efforts to focus on prevention in adolescents and young adults will be extremely important to reduce the number and impact of STIs over the course of their lives.


Chlamydia trachomatis Vaginitis Urethritis Pelvic inflammatory disease Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheena Kandiah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Meena Ramchandani
    • 2
  • Scott Grieshaber
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Infectious DiseasesEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA

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