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Multi-Level Hierarchies

  • Hermann Kopetz
Chapter

Abstract

We find an immense number of different things in the world—inorganic things and living things. Classical physics tell us that all these things are composed of only three basic entities: protons, neutrons and electrons. How does the enormous diversity of things get into the world if there are only three basic entities? The answer to this question is: emergence caused by the differences in organization, i.e., differences in the arrangement of and interactions among the parts of a whole.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Kopetz
    • 1
  1. 1.Vienna University of TechnologyBaden-SiegenfeldAustria

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