Caloric Equations of State
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In the previous chapters the law of energy conservation has been thoroughly discussed. By this, it was possible to evaluate thermodynamic systems energetically. A distinction has been made between closed and open systems. However, next to thermal state values, such as pressure p or temperature T, that can be measured easily, a new category of state values has been introduced: These state values, i.e. specific internal energy u and specific enthalpy h for instance, can not be determined by a sensor and thus need to be calculated.