Association Between Two Categorical Variables: Contingency Analysis with Chi Square

  • Cynthia Fraser


Categorical variables, including nominal (where numbers are simply labels) and ordinal, rank order variables, are described by tabulating their frequencies or probability. If two categorical variables are associated, the frequencies of values of one will depend on the frequencies of values of the other. Chi square tests the hypothesized association between two categorical variables and contingency analysis quantifies their association.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia Fraser
    • 1
  1. 1.McIntire School of CommerceUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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