Atherosclerosis Risk Factors



Risk factor is defined as a variable that is causally associated with an increased rate of the disease and is an independent, significant predictor of the risk of developing the disease. Risk factors of atherosclerosis range from unavoidable genetic conditions or comorbidities, to environmental factors, to modifiable lifestyle behaviors. In this chapter, we not only cover the classical risk factors of atherosclerosis but also examine more controversial and emerging risk factors. The role of inflammation as a potential unifying concept in disease pathogenesis will also be considered.


Atherosclerosis Risk factors Dietary cholesterol Diabetes Hypertension Cigarette smoking Infection Chronic kidney disease Homocysteine Air pollution Microbiota Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential Inflammation 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hannover Medical SchoolHannoverGermany
  2. 2.Hannover Medical SchoolHannoverGermany

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