Advertisement

Cynara cardunculus Propagation

  • Nicola Calabrese
  • Vanina Cravero
  • Mario A. PagnottaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Compendium of Plant Genomes book series (CPG)

Abstract

The propagation in Cynara cardunculus is carried out following different procedures of both vegetative and seed propagation. In the countries of the Mediterranean basin, where the globe artichoke is grown on about 80% of the world’s surface, the propagation is usually made by vegetative methods using offshoots, ‘ovoli’ or rhizome parts. Conversely, wild and cultivated cardoons are commonly propagated by seed. The vegetative propagation of artichoke is often cause of agronomic and pathological disadvantages; to overcome these problems, new genotypes coming from ‘in vitro’ multiplication or from seed propagation methods have been successfully introduced in the last twenty years in all producing countries, and now their spread is constantly increasing. Recently, in the seed propagation group, F1 hybrids are commercially used. In the present chapter, the vegetative and seed propagation methods, the techniques to obtain healthy seedlings for multiplication, the influence of environmental factors on the seed production and seed germination parameters are widely described. The genetic at the base of new varieties development and the methods applied to obtain globe artichoke F1 hybrids are also reported together with their procedures and advantages versus disadvantages.

Keywords

Artichoke Cardoon Cynara cardunculus Hybrids Pollination Propagation 

References

  1. Abatte V, Noto G (1979) Variabilità ambientale e genotipica in popolazione siciliane de Cynara scolymus ed isolamento di nuovi cloni di Violetto de Sicilia. In: Studi sul Carciofo. Atti III Cong. Int. Studi sul Carciofo. Laterza Bari, pp 843–852Google Scholar
  2. Allard RW (1960) Principles of plant breeding. Wiley Inc, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  3. Amenduni M, Cirulli M, D’Amico M, Colella C (2005) Verticillium wilt of artichoke caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Acta Hortic 681:603–606.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.681.83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ancora G, Belli-Donini ML, Cuozzo L (1981) Globe artichoke plants obtained from shoot apices through rapid in vitro micropropagation. Sci Hort 14:207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Argento S, Puglia G, Pappalardo H, Pulvirenti M, Melilli MG, Raccuia SA (2016) Seed germination responses to salt stress in wild and cultivated Sicilian cardoon genotypes. Acta Hortic 1147:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baixauli C, Giner A, Miguel A, López S, Pascual B, Maroto JV (2007) Agronomic behavior of seed propagated artichoke cultivars in the Spanish Mediterranean area. Acta Hort 730:143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balloux F, Lehmann L, De Meeûs T (2003) The population genetics of clonal and partially clonal diploids. Genetics 164:1635–1644PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Baranwal VK, Mikkilineni V, Zehr UB, Tyagi AK, Kapoor S (2012) Heterosis: emerging ideas about hybrid vigour. J Exp Bot 63(18):6309–6314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Basnizki Y (1985) Cynara scolymus. In: Halevy AA (ed) CRC handbook of flowering, vol II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 391–399Google Scholar
  10. Basnizki Y (2007) Growth and ripening of globe artichoke achenes. Ital J Agron 4:373–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Basnizki J, Mayer M (1985) Germination in Cynara seeds: effects of light and temperature on the function of the endosperm. Agronomie 5:529–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Basnizki J, Zohary D (1987) A seed-planted cultivar of globe artichoke. Hort Sci 22:678–679Google Scholar
  13. Basnizki J, Zohary D (1994) Breeding of seed planted artichoke. Plant Breed Rev 12:253–269Google Scholar
  14. Bianco VV (1990) Carciofo (Cynara scolymus L.). In: Bianco VV, Pimpini F (eds) Orticoltura. Patron Editore, Bologna (in Italian), pp 209–251Google Scholar
  15. Boari F, Schiattone MI, Calabrese N, Montesano F, Cantore V (2016) Effect of nitrogen management on wild and domestic genotypes of cardoon for agro-energy purpose. Acta Hortic 1147 ISHSGoogle Scholar
  16. Calabrese N, Bianco VV (2000) Effect of gibberellic acid on yield and quality of seed grown artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus Fiori). Acta Hortic 514:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Calabrese N, Carito A, Boari F, Cantore V, De Palma E, Damato G (2011) Agronomical evaluation of artichoke cultivars propagated by seed. Acta Hortic 942:153–158Google Scholar
  18. Calabrese N, De Palma E, Bianco VV (2004) Yield and quality of new commercial seed grown artichoke hybrids. Acta Hortic 660:77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Calabrese N, De Palma E, Damato G (2007) Harvest time and yield of artichoke cultivars propagated vegetatively or by seed. Acta Hortic 730:345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Calabrese N, Elia A, Bianco VV (1990) Epoca di raccolta e caratteristiche qualitative di capolini di carciofo (Cynara scolymus L.) fresco e surgelato. Riv Agron 24:192–196Google Scholar
  21. Calabrese N, Elia A, Sarli G (1994) Yield and quality of new artichoke cultivars propagated by ‘seed’. Acta Hortic 371:189–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Campanelli A, Ruta C, Tagarelli A, Morone-Fortunato I (2011) Nursery inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus viscosum and its effect on the growth and physiology of hybrid artichoke seedlings. Ital J Agric 6:159–164Google Scholar
  23. Campanelli A, Ruta C, Tagarelli A, Morone-Fortunato I, De Mastro G (2014) Effectiveness of mycorrhizal fungi on globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) micropropagation. J Plant Interact 9(1):100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cardarelli M, Rouphael Y, Saccardo F, Colla G (2005a) An innovative vegetative propagation system for large-scale production of globe artichoke transplants. Part I. Propagation system setup. Hort Technol 15(4):812–816Google Scholar
  25. Cardarelli M, Rouphael Y, Saccardo F, Colla G (2005b) An innovative vegetative propagation system for large-scale production of globe artichoke transplants. Part II. Propagation system validation. Hort Technol 15(4):817–819Google Scholar
  26. Ciancolini A (2012) Characterization and selection of globe artichoke and cardoon germplasm for biomass, food and biocompound production. These Doctorat de l’Universite de Toulouse, France, p 251Google Scholar
  27. Ciancolini A, Rey NA, Pagnotta MA, Crinò P (2012) Characterization of Italian spring globe artichoke germplasm: morphological and molecular profiles. Euphytica 186(2):433–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cirulli M, Bubici G, Amenduni M, Armengol J, Berbegal M, Jiménez-Gasco M, Jiménez-Díaz RM (2010) Verticillium wilt: a threat to artichoke production. Plant Dis 94(10):1176–1187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cointry EL, López Anido FS, García SM, Firpo IT (1999) Mejoramiento genético del alcaucil (Cynara scolymus L.). Avances en Hortic 4(1):51–60Google Scholar
  30. Coulter FC (1941) The story of garden vegetables: artichoke. Seed world 49:10–11Google Scholar
  31. Cravero VP, Picardi LA, Cointry EL (2005) An approach for understanding the heredity of two quality traits (head color and tightness) in globe artichoke (Cynara Scolymus L.). Genet Mol Biol 28(3):431–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Crinò P, Tavazza R, Rey Munoz NA, Trionfetti Nisini P, Saccardo F, Ancora G, Pagnotta MA (2008) Recovery, morphological and molecular characterization of globe artichoke ‘Romanesco’ landraces. Genet Resour Crop Evol 55:823–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crinò P, Pagnotta MA (2017) Phenotyping, genotyping, and selections within Italian local landraces of romanesco globe artichoke. Diversity 9(14):1–15Google Scholar
  34. Curt MD, Sanchez G, Fernandez J (2002) The potential of Cynara cardunculus L. for seed oil production in a perennial cultivation system. Biomass and Bioenergy 23(1), 33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Damato G, Calabrese N (2005a) Solid matrix priming influences germination on artichoke achenes. Acta Hortic 681:323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Damato G, Calabrese N (2005b) Temperature sensitive phase during germination of artichoke ‘seed’. Acta Hortic 681:369–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Damato G, Calabrese N (2007) Osmoconditioning and germination temperature in “seed” of two artichoke cultivars. Acta Hortic 730:331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Damato G, Cascarano MA, Casciaro L (2007a) First results of some cultural practices on yield and quality of artichoke ‘seed’. Acta Hortic 730:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Damato G, Sarli G, Calabrese N (2007b) Age of mother plant, head removal, GA3, yield and quality of artichoke achenes. Acta Hortic 730:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Di Venere D, Pieralice M, Linsalata V, Gatto MA, Sergio L, Calabrese N (2016) Biochemical evaluation of artichoke cultivars propagated by seed. Acta Hortic 1147:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Durvick DN (1984) Genetic contribution to yield grains of U.S. hybrid mayze, 1930 to 1980. In: Fehr WR (ed) Genetic contribution to yield grains of five major crop plants CSSA Special publication no 7. American Society of Agronomy, Medison, WI, USA, pp 15–47. (Crop Sci Soc Am)Google Scholar
  42. Elia A, Santamaria P (1994) Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium on artichoke transplant growth. Agr Med 124:106–111Google Scholar
  43. FAO (2018) http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC; visited 30 Jan 2018
  44. Fasahat P, Rajabi A, Rad JM, Derera J (2016) Principles and utilization of combining ability in plant breeding. Biom Biostat Int J 4(1):1–24Google Scholar
  45. Foti S, Mauromicale G, Raccuia SA, Fallico B, Fanella F, Maccarone E (1999) Possible alternative utilization of Cynara spp. I. Biomass, grain yield and chemical composition of grain. Ind Crops Prod 10:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Foury C (1967) Étude de la biologie florale de l’artichaut (Cynara scolymus L.). Application a la sélection. Ann Amélior Plantes 17(4):357–373Google Scholar
  47. Foury C (1969) Étude de la biologie florale de l’artichaut (Cynara scolymus L.). Application a la sélection 2° partie. Étude des descendances obtenues en fécondation contrôlée. Ann Amélior Plantes 19 (1):23–52Google Scholar
  48. Foury C (1994) Artichaut. In: Chaux et Foury, Productions légumières, 2°. Lavoisier Ed., Paris, pp 405–438Google Scholar
  49. Foury C, Martin F (1976) Etude des possibilitès de creation etd’utilisation de varètès d’artichaut issues de semences. Atti 2° Congr. Int Carciofo, 1973 Bari, Ed. Minerva Medica, Torino, pp 667–679Google Scholar
  50. Foury C, Martin F, Imperiali M (1978) Remarques sur la production des semences d’artichaut (Cynara scolymus L.). Ann Amélior Plantes 28:45–60Google Scholar
  51. Gallitelli D, Rana G, Vovlas C, Martelli G (2004) Viruses of globe artichoke: an overview. J Plant Pathol 86(4):267–281Google Scholar
  52. García SM (2005) Estrategias alternativas para incrementar la producción y precocidad en el cultivo de alcaucil (Cynara scolymus L.). Tesis Doctorado en Ciencias Agrarias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Argentina, 180 pGoogle Scholar
  53. García SM, Firpo IT, Cointry EL, López Anido FS, Cravero VP (2005) Artichoke situation in Argentina. Acta Hortic 681:195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. García SM, Firpo IT, López Anido FS, Cointry EL (1998) Incidencia de técnicas culturales sobre la rentabilidad del alcaucil (Cynara scolymus L.) en Argentina. Avances en Horticultura 3(1) (online)Google Scholar
  55. Gherbin P, Monteleone M, Tarantino E (2001) Five years evaluation on cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var altilis) biomass production in a Mediterranean environment. Ital J Agron 5(1–2):11–19Google Scholar
  56. Gutierrez Caro B, Ipinza Carmona R (1998) La Multiplicación Clonal en el Mejoramiento Genético Forestal. In: Ipinza R, Gutierrez B, Emhart V (eds) Mejora Genética Forestal Operativa, First edn, pp 201–218Google Scholar
  57. Ha M, Lu J, Tian L, Ramachandran V, Kasschau KD, Chapman EJ, Carrington JC, Chen X, Wang X-J, Chen ZJ (2009) Small RNAs serve as a genetic buffer against genomic shock in Arabidopsis interspecific hybrids and allopolyploids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:17835–17840CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Hammer K (1988) Preadaptations and the domestication of crops and weeds. Biologische Zentralblatt 107:631–636Google Scholar
  59. Hang G (1993) Análisis económico del alcaucil. Boletín Hortícola. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales. UNLI. 1(1):414Google Scholar
  60. Harbaoui Y, Debergh P (1980) Application du culture in vitro pour l´amèlioration des plantes potagères. Reun. Eucarpia. Section Legumes: Multiplication in vitro des clones sélectionnées d´artichaut (Cynara scolymus L.). Versailles 1–7Google Scholar
  61. Harwood RR, Markarian D (1967) Annual culture of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Preliminary report. Curtice-Burns Inc. Am Soc Hortic Sci 92:400–409Google Scholar
  62. Huarte H, Benech-Arnold R (2010) Hormonal nature of seed responses to fluctuating temperatures in Cynara cardunculus (L.). Seed Sci Res 20(1):39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ierna A, Mauro RP, Mauromicale G (2012) Biomass, grain and energy yield in Cynara cardunculus L. as affected by fertilization, genotype and harvest time. Biomass Bioenerg 36:404–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ierna A, Mauromicale G (2010) Cynara cardunculus L. genotypes as a crop for energy purposes in a Mediterranean environment. Biomass and Bioenergy 34(5):754–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ierna A, Restuccia A, Mauromicale G (2004) Effects of seed osmopriming on germination of Cynara cardunculus under low, optimal and high temperatures. Acta Hortic 660:333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jahanian A, Chaichi MR, Rezaei K, Rezayazdi K, Khavazi K (2012) The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on germination and primary growth of artichoke (Cynara scolymus). Int J Agric Crop Sci 4(14):923–929Google Scholar
  67. Jevdjovic R, Maletic R, levdjovic J (2001) Influence of vegetation space and usage of artichoke plant on yield and quality of artichoke seed (Cynara scolymus L.). J Agric Sci 46(2):97–104Google Scholar
  68. La Malfa G, Foury C (1971) Aspects de la multiplication végétative de l´artichaut dans le bassin occidental de la méditerranée. Pép Hort Mar 114:19–29Google Scholar
  69. La Malfa G, Foury C (1976) Caratteristiche morfologiche e biologiche delle piante in Cynara scolymus L. in rapporto agli organi di moltiplicazione. Atti 2° Congr. Int Carciofo, 1974 Bari. Ed. Minerva Medica, Torino, pp 407–418Google Scholar
  70. Lanteri S, Acquadro A, Comino C, Mauro R, Mauromicale G, Portis E (2006) A first linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) based on AFLP, S-SAP, M-AFLP and microsatellite markers. Theor Appl Genet 112(8):1532–1542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Ledda L, Mameli MG, Milia M, Marras GF (2004) Influence of plant shading and ovoly typology on globe artichoke development, early production and head atrophy: preliminary results. Acta Hortic 660:365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lekić S, Stojadinović J, Todorović G, Jevdjović R, Draganić I, Djukanović L (2011) Effects of substrates and temperatures on Cynara cardunculus L. seed germination. Romanian Agric Res 28:223–227Google Scholar
  73. Leskovar DI, Othman Y (2016a) Low nitrogen fertigation promotes root development and transplant quality in globe artichoke. Hort Sci 51(5):567–572Google Scholar
  74. Leskovar DI, Othman Y (2016b) Morpho-physiological characteristics and yield of early and mid-season globe artichoke. Acta Hortic 1147:155–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lo Bianco C, Fernández JA, Migliaro D, Crinò P, Egea-Gilabert C (2011) Identification of F1 hybrids of artichoke by ISSR markers and morphological analysis. Mol Breed 27(2):157–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lo Bianco C, Saccardo F, Olimpieri I, Mazzucato A, Crinò P (2012) Floral biology in male sterile clones of globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus (L.) Hegi]. Acta Hortic 942:159–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lombardo S, Pandino G, Mauromicale G, Carle R, Knödler M, Schieber A (2012) New seed propagated cultivars of globe artichoke suitable for processing uses. Acta Hortic 942:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. López Anido FS, Martin EA, García SM, Cointry EL (2016) Successful Transferring of male sterility from globe artichoke into cultivated cardoon. Acta Hortic 1147:163–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Macua JI, Lahoz I (2016a) Seed artichoke in Navarre. Acta Hortic 1147:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Macua JI, Lahoz I (2016b) Annual and multiannual production of different artichoke cultivars in northern Spain. Acta Hortic 1147:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Macua JI, Lahoz I, Santos A (2005) Agronomic and qualitative influence of different artichoke varieties in stumps fields with one-year and multi-year crops. Acta Hortic 681:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mass EV, Hoffman GJ (1977) Crop salt tolerance-current assessment. J Irrig Drain Div ASCE 103:115–134Google Scholar
  83. Mauromicale G (1987) Panorama varietale del carciofo e sua prevedibile evoluzione. L’inf Agr 43(4):69–76Google Scholar
  84. Mauromicale G, Basnizki J, Cavallaro V (1989) Primi risultati sperimentali sulla propagazione del carciofo (Cynara scolymus L.) per seme. Riv Agron 23(6):417–423Google Scholar
  85. Mauromicale G, Ierna A (2000) Characteristics of heads of seed-grown globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] as affected by harvest period, sowing date and gibberellic acid. Agronomie 20(2):197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mauromicale G, Licandro P (2002) Salinity and temperature effects on germination, emergence and seedling growth of globe artichoke. Agronomie 22:443–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mauromicale G, Licandro P, Ierna A, Morello N, Santoiemma G (2004) Planning of globe artichoke plantlets production in nursery. Acta Hortic 660:279–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Miguel A, Baixauli C, Aguilar JM, Giner A, Maroto JV, Lòpez S, Pascual B (2004) Cultivar trials of seed propagated artichoke. Acta Hortic 660:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mondini L, Noorani A, Pagnotta MA (2009) Assessing plant genetic diversity by molecular tools. Diversity 1:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ni Z, Kim ED, Ha M, Lackey E, Liu J, Zhang Y, Sun Q, Chen ZJ (2009) Altered circadian rhythms regulate growth vigour in hybrids and allopolyploids. Nature 457(7227):327–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ortega RG (2002) Effect of head position and climatic conditions on seed yield of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. Fiori), cv. Imperial Star. Sci Hortic 93(2):187–192Google Scholar
  92. Ouselati T, Ghezal I (2009) Il carciofo in Tunisia. In: Calabrese N (ed) Il carciofo e il cardo. Script Bologna, pp 386–391. ISBN 978-96301-05-0Google Scholar
  93. Pagnotta MA (2016) Artichoke, an uncivilised crop rich of diversity to preserve and valorize. Acta Hortic 1147:243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pagnotta MA, Fernández JA, Sonnante G, Egea-Gilabert C (2017) Genetic diversity and accession structure in European Cynara cardunculus collections. PloS ONE 12(6)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Pagnotta MA, Noorani A (2014) Genetic diversity assessment in European Cynara collections. In: Genomics of Plant Genetic Resources. Springer, The Netherland, pp 559–584Google Scholar
  96. Pagnotta MA, Rey NA, Mondini L, Aringoli R, Jordan R, Saccardo F (2016) Assessment of artichoke hybrids under USA and Italian conditions and the hereditability of some important traits. Acta Hortic 1147:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pappalardo H, Leonardi C, Genovese C, Toscano V, Melilli MG, Raccuia SA (2016) Effects of heavy metals on seedlings germination and growth in different cardoon genotypes. Acta Hortic 1147:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pécaut P (1985) Recherches sur l’artichaut. Rapport d’activité 1983–1984 de la Station d’amélioration des plantes maraîchères d’Avignon, INRA, France, pp 21–24Google Scholar
  99. Pécaut P (1993) Globe artichoke Cynara scolymus L. In: Kalloo G, Bergh BO (eds) Genetic improvement of vegetable crops. Pergamon Press, pp 737–746Google Scholar
  100. Pécaut P, Dumas de Vaulx R, Lot H (1983) Virus-free clones of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) obtained after in vitro propagation. Acta Hortic 131:303–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pécaut P, Foury C (1992) L’artichaut. In: Gallais A, Bannerot H (eds) Amélioration des espèces végétales cultivées. INRA, Paris, France, pp 460–469Google Scholar
  102. Pécaut P, Martin F (1992) Non-conformity of in vitro propagated plants of early Mediterranean varieties of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Acta Hortic 300:363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Piscioneri I, Sharma N, Baviello G, Orlandini S (2000) Promising industrial energy crop, Cynara cardunculus: a potential source for biomass production and alternative energy. Energy Convers Manage 41(10):1091–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pochard F (1964) Modifications de la croissance et du développement de l’artichaut provoquées par la gibberelline. Ann Amelior Plantes 14(2):219–225Google Scholar
  105. Pochard E, Foury C, Chambonner D (1969) Il miglioramento genetico del carciofo. Atti 1° Cong. Int di Studi sul Carciofo, Bari, pp 117–143Google Scholar
  106. Porceddu E, Dellacecca V, Bianco VV (1976). Classificazione numerica di cultivar di carciofo. Atti II Congresso Internazionale Carciofo, Bari. Ed. Minerva Media, Torino, pp 1105–1119Google Scholar
  107. Portis E, Barchi L, Acquadro A, Macua JI, Lanteri S (2005) Genetic diversity assessment in cultivated cardoon by AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and microsatellite markers. Plant Breed 124:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Principe JA (1984) Male-sterility in artichoke. Hort Sci 19(6):864–865Google Scholar
  109. Raccuia SA, Cavallaro V, Melilli MG (2004) Intraspecific variability in Cynara cardunculus L. var. sylvestris Lam. Sicilian populations: seed germination under salt and moisture stresses. J Arid Environ 56(1):107–116Google Scholar
  110. Raccuia SA, Gallo G, Melilli MG (2012) Effect of plant density on biomass and grain yields in Cynara cardunculus var. altilis cultivated in Sicily. Acta Hortic 942:303–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Raccuia SA, Melilli MG (2007). Biomass and grain oil yields in Cynara cardunculus L. genotypes grown in a Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Res 101(2):187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rana GL, Elia A, Nuzzaci M, Lafortezza R (1992) Effect of latent artichoke virus on the production of artichoke heads. J Phytopathol 135:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rey NA, Jordan R, Jordan A, Saccardo F, Pagnotta MA (2013a) Hybrids agromorphological assessment. Acta Hortic 983:237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rey NA, Jordan R, Saccardo F, Pagnotta MA (2016) A successful strategy to obtain artichoke hybrids. Acta Hortic 1147:357–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rey NA, Papacchioli V, Tavazza R, Pagnotta MA (2013b) Gauging the genetic changes occurring across globe artichoke micropropagation towards an appropriate variety registration and nursery production. Scientia Hortic 156:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rossi V, De Paoli G (1990) Micropropagazione per un carciofo di qualità. L’informatore agrario 9:207–209Google Scholar
  117. Runge MS, Patterson C (2006) Principles of molecular medicine. Humana Press, 58 p. ISBN 978-1-58829-202-5Google Scholar
  118. Ruta C, Tagarelli A, Morone Fortunato I (2005) Mycorrizathion on micropropagated artichoke. Acta Hortic 681:407–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Saccardo F (2009) Miglioramento genetico in Il carciofo e il cardo. In: Calabrese N (ed) Script Bologna, pp 286–297. ISBN 978-96301-05-0Google Scholar
  120. Saccardo F, Jordan JR, Jordan A, Crinò P, Micozzi F, Lo Bianco C, Temperini A, Rey NA, Pagnotta MA (2013) Innovative strategy to obtain F1 hybrids of globe artichoke. Acta Hortic 983:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Saccardo F, Jordan JR, Mancuso G, Crinò P, Pagnotta MA (2016) ‘Romolo’ and ‘Istar’, First artichoke seed propagated hybrids enrolled into Italian national variety register. Acta Hortic 1147:381–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Santamaria P, Ayala O, Buttaro D, Parente A, Kirkayak B (2007) N-rate and N-source for producing artichoke cv. ‘Concerto transplants’ in float bed under greenhouse conditions. Acta Hortic 730:315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schrader WL (1990) Artichoke seed germination responses to chilling and growth regulator treatments. Hort Sci 25(9):1084Google Scholar
  124. Schrader WL (1992) Growth regulator effects or earliness and yield in artichokes grown as annuals from seed. Hort Sci 27:643Google Scholar
  125. Sharaf-Eldin MA, Al-Tamimi A, Alam P, Elkholy SF, Jordan JR (2015) Genetic relatedness of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) hybrids using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. Genet Mol Res 14:18431–18439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Shinohara T, Leskovar DI (2014) Effects of ABA, antitranspirants, heat and drought stress on plant growth, physiology and water status of artichoke transplants. Sci Hort 165:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shinohara T, Martin EA, Leskovar DI (2017) Ethylene regulators influence germination and root growth of globe artichoke seedlings exposed to heat stress conditions. Seed Science and Technology 45(1):167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sprague GF, Tatum LA (1942) General versus specific combining ability in single crosses of corn. J Am Soc Agr 34:923–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stamigna C, Micozzi F, Pandozy G, Crinò P, Saccardo F (2004) Artichoke hybrids production by use of male sterile clones [Cynara scolymus L.]. Italus Hortus (Italy)Google Scholar
  130. Tavazza R, Rey NA, Papacchioli V, Pagnotta MA (2015) A validated slow-growth in vitro conservation protocol for globe artichoke germplasm: a cost-effective tool to preserve from wild to elite genotypes. Sci Hortic 197:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Temperini O, Calabrese N, Temperini A, Rouphael Y, Tesi R, Lenzi A, Carito A, Colla G (2013) Grafting artichoke onto cardoon rootstocks: graft compatibility, yield and Verticillium wilt incidence. Sci Hort 149:22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tesi R, Lombardi P, Lenzi A (2003) Nursery production of rooted offshoots of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Acta Hortic 660:399–404Google Scholar
  133. Trigo-Colina L (1980) Estudio del comportamiento clonal de la población de alcachofa Blanca de España cultivada en el valle del Ebro. Inia 13(3):49–57Google Scholar
  134. Vannella S, Damato G, Calabrese N (2005) Influence of temperature and substrate on the germination of artichoke achenes. Acta Hort 681:361–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Vasilakoglou I, Dhimab K (2014) Potential of two cardoon varieties to produce biomass and oil under reduced irrigation and weed control inputs. Biomass Bioenerg 63:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Vilchez M, Paulus AO, Mayberry KS (2005) Globe artichoke seed treatment to control seedborne fungi and seed quality evaluation. Acta Hortic 681:581–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Welbaum GE (1994) Annual culture of globe artichoke from seed in Virginia. Hort Technol 4(2):147–150Google Scholar
  138. Zhang X, Lv L, Lv C, Guo B, Xu R (2015) Combining ability of different agronomic traits and yield components in hybrid barley. PLoS ONE 10(6):e0126828CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Ziani K, Ursúa B, Maté JI (2010) Application of bioactive coatings based on chitosan for artichoke seed protection. Crop Prot 29:853–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicola Calabrese
    • 1
  • Vanina Cravero
    • 2
  • Mario A. Pagnotta
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Science of Food Production—National Council of ResearchBariItaly
  2. 2.Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Agrarias de Rosario (IICAR, CONICET-UNR)Zavalla, Santa FeArgentina
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural and Forestry SciencesTuscia UniversityViterboItaly

Personalised recommendations