Advertisement

Smart Cities Applications of Blockchain

  • Joe Moorman
  • Michael Stricklen
Chapter

Abstract

Blockchain technology has grown tremendously in popularity since cryptocurrencies proved its scalable adoption. The underlying construct of a fully decentralized, distributed ledger has significant implications for Smart City use cases. This article posits applications of blockchains in these smart city environments and discusses some of the benefits and the costs incurred when delivering enabling capabilities for these future realities. We begin with a brief technical description of blockchain, and its history in cryptocurrencies and smart contracts. Following this introduction, the reader will delve into the benefits of applying blockchain technology to areas which include smart microgrids for next generation power distribution and future ridesharing markets enabled by autonomous vehicles. Finally, the article considers the impact of disruption to existing means for providing these services, and some of the societal benefits that could be realized after these capabilities are generally available.

Keywords

Blockchain Cryptocurrency Bitcoin Smart contracts Microgrid Distributed ledger Distributed mobility service Autonomous vehicles Ridesharing Renewable energy Distributed generation Photovoltaic Electric vehicles Solar energy Electric grid 

References

  1. 1.
    Morris D (2017) Bitcoin hits a new record high, but stops short of $20,000. Fortune [Online]. http://fortune.com/2017/12/17/bitcoin-record-high-short-of-20000/. Accessed 12 Jan 2019
  2. 2.
    Rooney K (2019) Bitcoin falls 7 percent to below $8,000 after Twitter’s ban on cryptocurrency ads. CNBC [Online]. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/03/26/bitcoin-falls-7-percent-to-below-8000-after-twitter-bans-cryptocurrency-ads.html. Accessed 12 Jan 2019
  3. 3.
    Josiah W (2019) Bitcoin mining difficulty just saw its second-largest drop in history. CCN [Online]. https://www.ccn.com/bitcoin-mining-difficulty-just-saw-its-second-largest-drop-in-history/. Accessed 02 Jan 2019
  4. 4.
    Wadhwa V (2016) R.I.P., bitcoin. It’s time to move on. Washington Post [Online]. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2016/01/19/r-i-p-bitcoin-its-time-to-move-on. Accessed 02 Jan 2019
  5. 5.
    Peck ME; IEEE Spectrum Staff (2015) The bitcoin blockchain explained. IEEE Spectrum [Online]. https://spectrum.ieee.org/video/computing/networks/video-the-bitcoin-blockchain-explained. Accessed 12 Jan 2019
  6. 6.
    Peck ME (2017) How blockchains work. IEEE SpectrumGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen L, Xu L, Gao Z, Lu Y, Shi W (2018) Protecting early stage proof-of-work based public blockchain. In: 2018 48th annual IEEE/IFIP international conference on dependable systems and networks workshops (DSN-W), Luxembourg, Luxembourg. IEEE, pp 122–127.  https://doi.org/10.1109/DSN-W.2018.00050
  8. 8.
    Cognizant (2017) Demystifying blockchain [Online]. https://www.cognizant.com/whitepapers/demystifying-blockchain-codex2199.pdf. Accessed 12 Jan 2019
  9. 9.
    Fairley P (2017) The ridiculous amount of energy it takes to run bitcoin. IEEE Spectrum [Online]. https://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/policy/the-ridiculous-amount-of-energy-it-takes-to-run-bitcoin. Accessed 11 Jan 2019
  10. 10.
    Buchko S (2017) How long do bitcoin transactions take? CoinCentral [Online]. https://coincentral.com/how-long-do-bitcoin-transfers-take. Accessed 12 Jan 2019
  11. 11.
    Bitinfocharts (2019) Ethereum block time historical chart [Online]. https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/ethereum-confirmationtime.html. Accessed 17 Jan 2019
  12. 12.
    Creer D, Crook R, Hornsby M et al (2016) Proving Ethereum for the clearing use case. Royal Bank of Scotland [Online]. https://cdn.relayto.com/media/files/lBFCJiHESx64mWhBAlzs_emeraldTechnicalPaper.pdf. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  13. 13.
    Uber Technologies Inc (2019) Uber company info [Online]. https://www.uber.com/newsroom/company-info. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  14. 14.
    O’Dea J (2017) How many rides do Lyft and Uber give per day? New data help cities plan for the future. Union of Concerned Scientists [Online]. https://blog.ucsusa.org/jimmy-odea/how-many-rides-do-lyft-and-uber-give-per-day-new-data-help-cities-plan-for-the-future. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  15. 15.
    FundSpec.IO (2017) Audi beats Tesla (And GM) to level 3 autonomy. Seeking Alpha [Online]. https://seekingalpha.com/article/4087480-audi-beats-tesla-gm-level-3-autonomy. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  16. 16.
    Ohnsman A (2018) Waymo is millions of miles ahead in robot car tests; does it need a billion more? Forbes [Online]. https://www.forbes.com/sites/alanohnsman/2018/03/02/waymo-is-millions-of-miles-ahead-in-robot-car-tests-does-it-need-a-billion-more. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  17. 17.
    Naughton K, Bergen M (2017) Alphabet’s Waymo cuts cost of key self-driving sensor by 90%. Bloomberg [Online]. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-01-08/alphabet-s-waymo-cuts-cost-of-key-self-driving-sensor-by-90. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  18. 18.
    United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2018) Petitions for exemption received during this administration [Online]. https://www.nhtsa.gov/laws-regulations/petitions-nhtsa. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  19. 19.
    Wayland M (2018) GM ride-hailing fleet would ditch steering wheel, pedals in 2019. Automotive News [Online]. https://www.autonews.com/article/20180112/MOBILITY/180119919/gm-ride-hailing-fleet-would-ditch-steering-wheel-pedals-in-2019. Accessed: 19-Jan-2019
  20. 20.
    Rainwater B (2018) For smart cities, blockchain technology opens new possibilities. National League of Cities [Online]. https://citiesspeak.org/2018/07/09/for-smart-cities-blockchain-technology-opens-new-possibilities. Accessed: 19 Jan 2019
  21. 21.
    Schiller B (2017) This new blockchain project gives homeless New Yorkers a digital identity. Fast Company [Online]. https://www.fastcompany.com/40500978/this-new-blockchain-project-gives-homeless-new-yorkers-a-digital-identity. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  22. 22.
    Lattin P (2018) How Vegas will monetize autonomous vehicles. Pace Vegas [Online]. https://pacevegas.com/2018/10/vegas-will-monetize-autonomous-vehicles/. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  23. 23.
    Metro Magazine (2018) Transportation workers form coalition to stop driverless buses in Ohio. Metro [Online]. http://www.metro-magazine.com/management-operations/news/731336/transportation-workers-form-coalition-to-stop-driverless-buses-in-ohio. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  24. 24.
    Langdon J (2008) The windmill: a medieval ‘steam engine’? Presented at 6th technology and human capital formation in the east and west S.R. Epstein memorial conference, London School of Economics, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    United States Department of Energy (2018) The war of the currents: AC vs DC power. energy.gov [Online]. https://www.energy.gov/articles/war-currents-ac-vs-dc-power. Accessed 19 Jan 2019
  26. 26.
    Masson-Delmotte V, Zhai P, Pörtner HO, Roberts D et al (2018) An IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15
  27. 27.
    Krey V, Masera O, Blanford G, Bruckner T et al (2014) Climate change 2014: mitigation of climate change. Contribution of working group III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change annex II: metrics and methodology. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Denholm P, O’Connell M, Brinkman G, Jorgenson J (2015) Overgeneration from solar energy in California: a field guide to the duck chart. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-65023. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/65023.pdf
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
    Gajda J (2017) The North Carolina solar experience: high penetration of utility-scale DER on the distribution system. Presented to IEEE power & energy society working group on distributed resources integration, Jul 2017Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Anair D, Mahmassani A (2012 June) State of charge: electric vehicles’ global warming emissions and fuel-cost savings across the United States. Union of Concerned Scientists. https://www.ucsusa.org/sites/default/files/legacy/assets/documents/clean_vehicles/electric-car-global-warming-emissions-report.pdf
  32. 32.
    Krauss C (2016) Coal production plummets to lowest level in 35 years. New York TimesGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kuykendall T, Cotting A (2018) Coal plant closings double in Trump’s 2nd year despite ‘end of war on coal’. S&P Global Market IntelligenceGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bruninga R (2012) Overlooking L1 charging at-work in the rush for public charging speed. United States Naval Academy, AnnapolisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Siemens AG (2016) How microgrids can achieve maximum return on investment: the role of the advanced microgrid controller. Siemens AG [Online]. https://w3.usa.siemens.com/smartgrid/us/en/microgrid/Documents/MGK%20Guide%20to%20How%20Microgrids%20Achieve%20ROI%20v5.pdf. Accessed 19 Jan 2019

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joe Moorman
    • 1
  • Michael Stricklen
    • 2
  1. 1.Myriad GeneticsAustinUSA
  2. 2.EY ParthenonDerryUSA

Personalised recommendations