Cardiac Output

  • Daniel H. Katz
  • Frederick HeuplerJr.
  • Marwa A. SabeEmail author
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


Cardiac output is the product of stroke volume and heart rate and is normally 5–6 L/min. Stroke volume, and thus cardiac output, is influenced by preload, afterload, and contractility. Decreased cardiac output (CO) may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and thus methods to measure CO are important in the clinical setting. Hemodynamic parameters, including CO, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR), are important in the assessment of the various forms of shock. Cardiogenic shock is a low output, elevated filling pressure state. Close attention to noninvasive and invasive hemodynamic parameters is essential to guiding adequate and appropriate therapeutic management in critically ill patients. There are noninvasive and invasive methods of measuring CO. Noninvasive methods include clinical parameters and echocardiography. The most commonly used invasive methods, thermodilution and Fick methods, require insertion of a Swan-Ganz catheter into the right heart and pulmonary artery.


Output Swan-Ganz Catheter Shock Thermodilution Fick 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel H. Katz
    • 1
  • Frederick HeuplerJr.
    • 2
  • Marwa A. Sabe
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Cleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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