• Jose Mariano T. TanEmail author
  • Michael P. Brunner
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


Shock is a pathophysiological state characterized by inadequate tissue oxygenation due to an imbalance of oxygen delivery and consumption. It is a life-threatening condition that may lead to cellular death and vital organ dysfunction. Shock is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There are four major categories of shock: cardiogenic, hypovolemic, distributive, and obstructive. Hemodynamic data obtained from intra-arterial pressure monitoring and pulmonary artery catheterization provide additional information to aid in the optimal assessment of shock.


Catheter Hemodynamics Lactate Shock Waveform 



We would like to thank Venu Menon for his contribution to the previous edition of this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Spectrum Health Medical GroupGrand RapidsUSA

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