Valvular Heart Disease

  • Amar KrishnaswamyEmail author
  • Brian P. Griffin
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


Valvular heart disease is a common reason for patients to present for outpatient or inpatient evaluation and treatment. This chapter will provide details on the echocardiographic and invasive catheter-based assessments of stenotic and regurgitant valvular lesions.


Aortic stenosis Aortic regurgitation Mitral stenosis Mitral regurgitation Invasive hemodynamic assessment 


  1. 1.
    Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano M. Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Lancet. 2006;368:1005–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Otto CM, Burwash IG, Legget ME, et al. Prospective study of asymptomatic valvular aortic stenosis. Clinical, echocardiographic, and exercise predictors of outcome. Circulation. 1997;95:2262–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carabello BA. Clinical practice. Aortic stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:677–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leach RM, McBrien DJ. Brachioradial delay: a new clinical indicator of the severity of aortic stenosis. Lancet. 1990;335:1199–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nishimura RA, Otto CM, Bonow RO, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients with Valvular Heart Disease: executive summary a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129:2440–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    deFilippi CR, Willett DL, Brickner ME, et al. Usefulness of dobutamine echocardiography in distinguishing severe from nonsevere valvular aortic stenosis in patients with depressed left ventricular function and low transvalvular gradients. Am J Cardiol. 1995;75:191–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Monin JL, Quere JP, Monchi M, et al. Low-gradient aortic stenosis: operative risk stratification and predictors for long-term outcome: a multicenter study using dobutamine stress hemodynamics. Circulation. 2003;108:319–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Quere JP, Monin JL, Levy F, et al. Influence of preoperative left ventricular contractile reserve on postoperative ejection fraction in low-gradient aortic stenosis. Circulation. 2006;113:1738–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hakki AH, Iskandrian AS, Bemis CE, et al. A simplified valve formula for the calculation of stenotic cardiac valve areas. Circulation. 1981;63:1050–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Babu AN, Kymes SM, Carpenter Fryer SM. Eponyms and the diagnosis of aortic regurgitation: what says the evidence? Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:736–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Griffin BP, Flachskampf FA, Reimold SC, Lee RT, Thomas JD. Relationship of aortic regurgitant velocity slope and pressure half-time to severity of aortic regurgitation under changing haemodynamic conditions. Eur Heart J. 1994;15:681–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Padmavati S. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in India at the turn of the century. Indian Heart J. 2001;53:35–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Selzer A, Cohn KE. Natural history of mitral stenosis: a review. Circulation. 1972;45:878–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Braunwald E, Bonow RO, Braunwald E. Chapter 57: Valvular heart disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2005.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Muddassir SM, Pressman GS. Mitral annular calcification as a cause of mitral valve gradients. Int J Cardiol. 2007;123:58–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wilkins GT, Weyman AE, Abascal VM, Block PC, Palacios IF. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve: an analysis of echocardiographic variables related to outcome and the mechanism of dilatation. Br Heart J. 1988;60:299–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baumgartner H, Hung J, Bermejo J, et al. Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: EAE/ASE recommendations for clinical practice. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2009;10:1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Enriquez-Sarano M, Akins CW, Vahanian A. Mitral regurgitation. Lancet. 2009;373:1382–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zoghbi WA, Enriquez-Sarano M, Foster E, et al. Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2003;16:777–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interventional CardiologyCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Cardiovascular ImagingCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations