Despite the fact current approaches theoretically aim to deliver the services required to support young people to develop resilience, stability and resources to support desistence, the limited provisions in STCs mean that these services are severely lacking. This chapter draws on analysis from the previous chapters exploring health and wellbeing, relationships, education, independence and attitudes to offending. By drawing together this analysis, and positioning it within a SIM framework, this chapter develops what can be termed the Resettlement Pyramid that outlines the crucial building blocks to achieving successful transitions. To fully understand this model, this chapter will outline the development stages for the rehabilitative environment, the foundations of the rehabilitative environment and the approaches to implementing the model.
KeywordsResettlement Rehabilitation Resilience Success Transition
- Alexander, J., Bloom, J., & Nichols, B. (1994). Nursing Turnover and Hospital Efficiency: An Organization-Level Analysis. Industrial Relations, 33(4), 505–520.Google Scholar
- Audit Commission. (1996). Misspent Youth: Young People and Crime Summary. London: Audit Commission.Google Scholar
- Audit Commission. (1998). Misspent Youth ’98 – The Challenge for Youth Justice. Retrieved April 12, 2018, from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090415152538/http://www.auditcommission.gov.uk/Products/NATIONAL-REPORT/7C38F5A0-C744-4362-A6C6-90A12D52258D/archive_misyth98.pdf.
- Bateman, T., & Hazel, N. (2013). Engaging Young People in Resettlement: Research Report. London: Nacro/Beyond Youth Custody. Retrieved June 5, 2016, from http://www.beyondyouthcustody.net/wp-content/uploads/Engaging-young-people-in-resettlement.pdf.
- BBC. (2017). Custody Office Attacked by Five Boys at Young Offender Unit. Retrieved December 20, 2017, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-beds-bucks-herts-39293479.
- Carpenter, J., Webb, C., Bostock, L., & Coomber, C. (2012). Effective Supervision in Social Work and Social Care. Social Care Institute for Excellent – Research Briefing 43.Google Scholar
- Cashmore, J., & Paxman, M. (1996). Wards Leaving Care: A Longitudinal Study. Sydney, Australia: New South Wales Department of Community Services.Google Scholar
- Clancy, A., Hudson, K., Maguire, M., Peake, R., Raynor, P., Vanstone, M., & Kynch, J. (2006). Getting Out and Staying Out: Results of the Prisoner Resettlement Pathfinders. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
- Clifford, J., Hehenberger, L., & Fantini, M., (2014, June). Proposed Approaches to Social Impact Measurement in European Commission Legislation and in Practice Relating to: EuSEFs and the EaSI, European Commission Report 140605. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/social_business/docs/expert-group/social_impact/140605-sub-group-report_en.pdf and http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=en&pubId=7735&type=2&furtherPubs=yes.
- Farrington, D. (2005). Integrated Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Offending. Advances in Criminological Theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
- Farrington, D. (2007). Origins of Violent Behaviour over the Life Span. In D. J. Flannery, A. T. Vazsonyi, & I. D. Waldman (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Violent Behavior and Aggression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Farrington, D., & Ttofi, M. (2014). Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Offending. In H. Morizot & L. Kazemian (Eds.), The Development of Criminal and Antisocial Behaviour. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Griffin, M. (2001). Job Satisfaction Among Detention Officers: Implications for Understanding a System. Criminal Justice Studies, 19, 225–239.Google Scholar
- Hazel, N., Hagell, A., Liddle, M., Archer, D., Grimshaw, R., & King, J. (2002). Assessment of the Detention and Training Order and Its Impact on the Secure Estate Across England and Wales. London: Youth Justice Board.Google Scholar
- Hazel, N., Goodfellow, P., Liddle, M., Bateman, T., & Pitts, J. (2017). “Now All I Care About Is My Future” – Supporting the Shift: Framework for the Effective Resettlement of Young People Leaving Custody. Beyond Youth Custody. Retrieved November 29, 2017, from http://www.beyondyouthcustody.net/wp-content/uploads/Now-all-I-care-about-is-my-future-Supporting-the-shift-full-research-report.pdf.
- Hazenberg, R., & Clifford, J. (2016). GECES and the Valid Measurement of Social Impact in the VCSE Sector. In R. Gunn & C. Durkin (Eds.), Social Entrepreneurship: A Skills Approach (2nd ed.). Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
- HM Inspectorate of Prisons. (2001). Through the Prison Gate – A Joint Thematic Review by HM Inspectorates of Prisons and Probation. Retrieved February 26, 2016, from https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmiprisons/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2014/08/Through-The-Prison-Gate-2001-ao.pdf.
- Hodkinson, P., et al. (1996). Triumphs & Tears: Young People, Markets & the Transition from School to Work. London: David Fulton.Google Scholar
- Knowlton, L. W., & Phillips, C. C. (2013). The Logic Model Guidebook: Better Strategies for Great Results (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Labov, B. (1997). Inspiring Employees the Easy Way. Incentive, 171(10), 114–118.Google Scholar
- Maruna, S. (1997). Going Straight: Desistance from Crime and Life Narratives of Reform. The Narrative Study of Lives, 5, 59–93.Google Scholar
- Morrow, V., & Richards, M. (1996). Transitions to Adulthood: A Family Matter. London: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
- Nevill, C., & Lumley, T. (2011). Impact Measurement in the Youth Justice Sector. [online]. Retrieved September 9, 2015, from http://www.thinknpc.org/publications/measuring-together/.
- Ofsted. (2017). Inspection of Secure Training Centres – Inspection of Oakhill Secure Training Centre. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from https://reports.ofsted.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/secure-training-centre-reports/oakhill/OakhillSTC_January2017.pdf.
- Ongori, H. (2007). A Review of the Literature on Employee Turnover. African Journal of Business Management, 049–054.Google Scholar
- Paterson-Young, C., Hazenberg, R., Bajwa-Patel, M., & Denny, S. (2017). Developing a Social Impact Measurement Framework to Enhance Outcomes for Young People in Custody – What to Measure? British Society of Criminology – Conference 2017.Google Scholar
- Stanley, J., & Goddard, C. (2002). In the Firing Line: Violence and Power in Child Protection Work. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
- STC. (1998). Rules [Online]. Retrieved June 8, 2016, from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1998/472/contents/made.
- Taylor, C. (2016). An Interim Report of Emerging Findings from the Review of the Youth Justice System. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from https://www.gov.uk/government/news/review-of-the-youth-justice-system.
- The Local Government Association. (2011). Resettlement of Youth Offenders: How Local Initiatives Can Make a Difference. L11–565.Google Scholar
- Voltan, A., & Hervieux, C. (2017). Social Impact Assessment of a Community Engagement Initiative, Paper presented at the 9th International Social Innovation Research Conference, 12th–14th December 2017, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne.Google Scholar
- Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Weber, M. (1978). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretative Sociology. Berkeley, CA: California University Press.Google Scholar
- Youth Justice Board. (2014a). Deaths of Children in Custody: Action Take, Lessons Learnt. Retrieved June 30, 2016, from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/362715/deaths-children-in-custody.pdf.