• Claire Paterson-YoungEmail author
  • Richard Hazenberg
  • Meanu Bajwa-Patel


This chapter focuses on the importance of relationships in relation to the successful resettlement of young people. Relationships, within the STC and with family and peers outside, can be a significant influence on young people in custody and upon release, with positive relationships helping them to make smooth transitions and desist. This chapter explores the many facets of relationships for the young people in custody. It highlights the importance of building strong, positive relationships based upon trust, both with staff in the STC and with others outside in the community. Such relationships help to empower young people and involve them in co-producing their own rehabilitation strategies, despite the isolation of their custodial sentences. This relational approach recognises how a sense of belonging and feeling a part of a family, can help begin the move away from offending behaviours.


Family Friends Trust Empowerment Isolation 


  1. Abrams, L. S. (2007). From Corrections to Community: Youth Offenders’ Perceptions of the Challenges of Transition. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 44, 31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aspy, C. B., Oman, R. F., Vesely, S. K., McLeroy, K., Rodine, S., & Marshall, L. (2004). Adolescent Violence: The Protective Effects of Youth Assets. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82(3), 268–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldry, S., & Kemmis, J. (1998). What Is It Like to Be Looked After by a Local Authority? British Journal of Social Work, 28, 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bateman, T., & Hazel, N. (2014). Youth Justice Timeline. Retrieved from
  5. Bell, M. (2002). Promoting Children’s Rights Through the Use of Relationship. Child and Family Social Work, 7, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beyond Youth Custody. (2017, April). Lessons from Youth in Focus: Research Report, Big Lottery Fund. Retrieved from
  7. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cid, J., & Martí, J. (2012). Turning Points and Returning Points: Understanding the Role of Family Ties in the Process of Desistance. European Journal of Criminology, 9(6), 603–620. Scholar
  9. Clancy, A., Hudson, K., Maguire, M., Peake, R., Raynor, P., Vanstone, M., & Kynch, J. (2006). Getting Out and Staying Out: Results of the Prisoner Resettlement Pathfinders. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  10. Ellis, L. (1988). The Victimful-victimless Crime Distinction, and Seven Universal Demographic Correlates of Victim Criminal Behaviour. Personality & Individual Difference.Google Scholar
  11. Farrington, D. P. (1993). Childhood Origins of Teenage Antisocial Behaviour and Adult Social Dysfunction. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 86.Google Scholar
  12. Farrington, D. (2005). Integrated Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Offending. – Advances in Criminological Theory. New Jersey: Transaction.Google Scholar
  13. Farrington, D., & Ttofi, M. (2014). Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Offending. In H. Morizot & L. Kazemian (Eds.), The Development of Criminal and Antisocial Behaviour. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Fletcher, B. (1993). Not Just a Name: The Views of Young People in Residential and Foster Care. Who Cares? National Consumer Council, London.Google Scholar
  15. Goodfellow, P., Wilkinson, S., Hazel, N., Bateman, T., Liddle, M., Wright, S., & Factor, F. (2015). Effective Resettlement of Young People. London: Nacro/Beyond Youth Custody.Google Scholar
  16. Hart, D. (2015). Correction or Care? The Use of Custody for Children in Trouble. Prison Reform Trust.Google Scholar
  17. Hazel, N., Goodfellow, P., Liddle, M., Wright, S., Lockwood, K., McAteer, L., Francis, V., & Wilkinson, S. (2016). The Role of Family Support in Resettlement. Beyond Youth Custody. Retrieved from
  18. Hazel, N., Goodfellow, P., Liddle, M., Bateman, T., & Pitts, J. (2017). “Now All I Care About Is My Future”: Supporting the Shift – Framework for the Effective Resettlement of Young People Leaving Custody, Beyond Youth Custody. Retrieved from
  19. Holt, S., Buckley, H., & Whelan, S. (2006). The Impact of Exposure to Domestic Violence on Young People: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, 32, 797–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. House of Commons. (2007). Young Black People and the Criminal Justice System, House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, Second Report of Session 2006–07 Volume I. Retrieved from
  21. Kidson, H. (2013). Reducing Recidivism Amongst Young People in Custody Through Welfare Lead Rehabilitation. Winston Churchill Memorial Trust. Retrieved from
  22. Kitzmann, K., Gaylord, N., Holt, A., & Kenney, E. (2003). Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology., 71(2), 229–235.Google Scholar
  23. Liddle, M. (2016). Resettlement Work with Young People: Using Individual Case-Studies to Assess Costs and Benefits, Beyond Youth Custody. Retrieved from
  24. Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (1998). Predictors of Violent or Serious Delinquency in Adolescence and Early Adulthood, A Synthesis of Longitudinal Research. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Local Government Association. (2017). Councils Call for Urgent Action to Improve Safety in Youth Offending Institutions. Retrieved January 10, 2019, from
  26. Maguire, M., & Raynor, P. (2006). How the Resettlement of Prisoners Promotes Desistence from Crime: Or Does It? Criminology and Criminal Justice, 6(1), 19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Maruna, S. (1997). Going Straight: Desistance from Crime and Life Narratives of Reform. The Narrative Study of Lives, 5, 59–93.Google Scholar
  28. Maruna, S. (2001). Making Good: How Ex-Convicts Reform and Rebuild Their Lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matsueda, R. L. (1988). The Current State of Differential Association Theory. Crime and Delinquency. Retrieved from Scholar
  30. McLeod, A. (2008). ‘A friend and An Equal’: Do Young People in Care Seek the Impossible from Their Social Workers? British Journal Social Work, Advance Access, 1–17.Google Scholar
  31. Moore, T., McArthur, M., & Saunders, V. (2013). Young People Talk About Transitioning from Youth Detention to the Community: Making Good. Australian Social Work, 66, 328–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Morgan, R. (2006). Young People and Offending (Foreword). In M. Stephenson (Ed.), Young People and Offending – Education, Youth Justice and Social Inclusion. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Mulvey, E. P., et al. (2004). Theory and Research on Desistance from Antisocial Activity Among Serious Adolescent Offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2(3), 213–236. Scholar
  34. NHS England. (2017). Just Health: An Enquiry into the Emotional Health and Wellbeing of Young People in the Youth Justice System, Peer Power Research. Retrieved from
  35. Ofsted. (2017). Inspection of Secure Training Centres – Inspection of Oakhill Secure Training Centre. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from
  36. Partridge, S. (2004). Examining Case Management Models for Community Sentences. Home Office Online Report 17/04. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  37. Phoenix, J., & Kelly, L. (2013). ‘You Have to Do it for Yourself’ – Responsibilization in Youth Justice and Young People’s Situated Knowledge of Youth Justice Practice. British Journal of Criminology, 53, 419–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rogers, R. (2011). ‘Instant Adulthood’ and the Transition of Young People Out of State Care. Journal of Sociology, 47(4), 411–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sampson, R., & Laub, J. (1993). Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points Through Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Umberson, D., & Montez, J. (2010). Social Relationships and Health: A Flashpoint for Health Policy. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51, S54–S66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vaughan, B. (2007). The Internal Narrative of Desistance. British Journal of Criminology, 47, 390–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weber, M. (1978). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretative Sociology. Berkeley, CA: California University Press.Google Scholar
  43. West, D. J., & Farrington, D. P. (1973). Who Becomes Delinquent? London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  44. Whitebook, M., & Sakai, L. (2003). Turnover Begets Turnover: An Examination of Job and Occupational Instability Among Child Care Center Staff. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 18(3), 273–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Young, T., Fitzgerald, M., Hallsworth, S., & Joseph, I. (2007). Groups, Gangs and Weapons. London: Youth Justice Board.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire Paterson-Young
    • 1
    Email author
  • Richard Hazenberg
    • 1
  • Meanu Bajwa-Patel
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NorthamptonNorthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations