Dental Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine: Emerging Trends and Prospects in the Era of Bioinformatics

  • Saravanan Ramaswamy
  • Kavitha Odathurai Marusamy
  • Gauthaman KalamegamEmail author


The craniofacial skeleton comprising the teeth, gums and tongue is an excellent model of organogenesis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) present within various zones of the oro-dental tissue exhibit exceptional regeneration potential and contribute to tissue restoration and regeneration following infection/inflammation or trauma. Oro-dental disorders are multifactorial and encompass a wide array of diseases involving tooth germ formation, tooth shape, number, size and alignment. Oral microbial pathogens and their colonization as biofilm largely remain a threat to oral and dental health. Biofilms are associated with dental caries, periodontitis and peri-implantitis which often leads to oral disorders, tissue loss and dental implant failures. Scientific advancements have led to the identification of newer nanomaterials which can resist biofilms. Parallelly, isolation and differentiation of MSCs from within the dental structures and its adnexa offer great promise for dental restoration/regeneration. Robust screening systems are available today and provide an opportunity to screen pathogen susceptibility, properties of nanomaterials, stem cell plasticity, and gene, protein and cellular interactions. High-throughput technologies and availability of vast information from transcriptomics, epigenetics, genomics, proteomics and metabolomics studies will enable in-depth understanding of the oro-dental disorders as well as the regenerative/differentiation potential of the dental stem cells. Insights from HTS will pave way for successful utilization and effective clinical translation of the dental stem cells and bring about a paradigm shift in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications in relation to dentistry.


Dental Biofilms Nanomaterials Stem cells Regeneration Omics 



Adenomatous polyposis coli


Adenosine triphosphate


Basic local alignment search tool


Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project


Cancer Genome Anatomy Project


Current Good Manufacturing Practice


Complementary metal oxide semiconductor


Computed tomography


Database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery


Deoxyribonucleic acid


Deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates


Dental pulp stem cells


European Bioinformatics Institute


European molecular biology laboratory


Embryonic stem cells


Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor


Gene expression omnibus


Gene ontology


High-content screening


Human genic biallelic sequences


Human Genome Project


High-throughput screening


Immunome knowledge base


Induced pluripotent stem cells


Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes




Magnetic resonance imaging


Mesenchymal stem cells


Macromolecular structure database


National Center for Biotechnology Information


National Institutes of Health




Online Mendelian inheritance in man

ORF Finder

Open reading frame finder


Polymerase chain reaction


Periodontal ligament stem cells


Reference sequence


Ribonucleic acid


Serial analysis of gene expression


Stem cells from apical papilla


Salivary gland stem cells


Single-molecule real time


Single-molecule sequencing


Single-nucleotide polymorphisms


Sequencing oligonucleotides by ligation and detection


Universal Protein resource


UniProt Reference


Zero-mode waveguides



The authors acknowledge the grant (13-MED2437-03) funding provided by the National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovation (MAARIFAH), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They also acknowledge with thanks the Science and Technology Unit (STU), King Abdulaziz University for their excellent technical support.

Statement of Conflicts of Interest 

All authors have no conflicts of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saravanan Ramaswamy
    • 1
  • Kavitha Odathurai Marusamy
    • 1
  • Gauthaman Kalamegam
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of DentistryIbn Sina National College for Medical SciencesAl Mahjar, JeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Stem Cell Research Unit, Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine ResearchKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Faculty of MedicineAIMST UniversitySemeling, BedongMalaysia

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