Geminiviruses pp 123-135 | Cite as

Evolutionary Factors in the Geminivirus Emergence

  • Amir Hameed
  • Sara Shakir
  • Syed Shan-e-Ali Zaidi


The viruses belonging to family Geminiviridae have a small genome of 2.8–5.0 kb and only four to six protein coding genes, and yet they have evolved as the largest family of single-stranded DNA viruses and one of the most important plant viruses that are threat to several economical crops. Most of the efforts to introduce resistance against geminiviruses have met with limited success, mainly due to rapid evolution of geminiviruses and, in turn, efficient evasion from plant-pathogen resistance mechanisms. Here, we discuss different evolutionary pathways that shaped geminiviruses’ genome and assisted their global spread.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amir Hameed
    • 1
  • Sara Shakir
    • 2
  • Syed Shan-e-Ali Zaidi
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Bioinformatics and BiotechnologyGovernment College University (GCU)FaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Boyce Thompson InstituteIthacaUSA
  3. 3.National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE)FaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of LiègeGemblouxBelgium

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