Advertisement

Background

Chapter
  • 319 Downloads

Abstract

Minerals and drinking water play an important role in the body. There are around 20 essential minerals for humans. Their origin is mostly the bedrock, and they can all be present to high or low concentrations in ground as well as surface water. Normal weight adults need 2.0–2.5 L/day of water for proper hydration, and it is known for centuries that water can be a source of minerals, where they are present as ions, in general readily absorbable. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century well off people in Europe went to health resorts to drink specific mineral waters containing sufficient levels of one or more essential minerals, water chosen for a specific health disorders. On the other hand, case histories from alpine climbing or polar expeditions which used melted snow as the only source of drinking water, with no minerals at all in it, appeared in scientific literature in mid twentieth century. The symptoms were derived from acute water and mineral imbalance and water intoxication, and include weakness, fatigue, convulsions, unconsciousness, and even death. Such water is comparable to RO (Reverse Osmosis) treated, desalinated water of today. Low levels of specific mineral elements have been proven to cause some diseases and symptoms. Thus, districts of Norway had high frequencies of softening of bone tissue among domestic animals (later identified as P deficient soils and water), and parts of China had increased levels of heart failure (low Se in soils and water). Dental remains of Native Americans from parts of Kentucky indicate Mn and Zn deficient soils and water, as cultivated maize had extremely low levels. During the twentieth century, hard water, with elevated levels of especially Ca, Mg and HCO3, presently with focus on Mg, is proven protective against diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases, but also diabetes, osteoporosis and even cancer.

References

  1. Aastrup M, Thunholm B, Johnson J, Bertills U, Berntell A (1995) The chemistry of ground water. The Swedish bed-rock. SEPA Report:4415Google Scholar
  2. Abramowitz MK, Hostetter TH, Melamed ML (2012) Lower serum hydrogen carbonate and a higher anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in young adults. Kidney Int 81(10):1033–1042PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adrogue HJ, Madias NE (2007) Na and K in the pathogenesis of hypertension. N Engl J Med 356(356):1966–1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymus (1871) Water consumption in London in 1869/70 (in German). J fur Gasbeleuchtung und Wasserversorgung 14(11):403–405Google Scholar
  5. Arnett TR (2008) Extracellular pH regulates bone cell function. J Nutr (138):415–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergmark M (1959) Bath and remedy. (Bad och bot, in Swedish). Natur och KulturGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourre JM (2006) Effect of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirement for brain. Part 1: micronutrients. J Nutr Health Aging 10(5):377–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowman BA, Russell RM (2006) Nutrition, 9th edn. ILSI Press, Washington, DC, p 526Google Scholar
  9. Cole DE, Quamme GA (2000) Inherited disorders of renal Mg handling. J Am Soc Nephrol 11:1937–1947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Deng B, Zhu P, Wang Y, Feng J, Li X, Xu X, Lu H, Xu Q (2008) Determination of free calcium and calcium-containing species in human plasma by capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Anal Chem 80: 5721–5726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Edmunds M, Smedley P (2013) Fluoride in natural waters. In: Selinus O, Alloway B, Centeno JA, Finkelman RB, Fuge R, Lindh U, Smedley P (eds) Medical geology. Springer, p 826Google Scholar
  12. EFSA, Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (2010) Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for water. EFSA J, 8(3):1459. [48 pp.]. doi: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1459. Available online: www.efsa.europa.eu
  13. FBN, Food and Nutrition Board (1989) Recommended dietary allowances. Commission on life sciences. In: National research council, 10th edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  14. FNB, Food and Nutrition Board (2005) Dietary reference intakes for water, K, Na, chloride, and sulfate. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Fenton TR, Eliasziw M, Lyon AW, Tough S, Hanley DA (2008) Meta-analysis of the quantity of ca excretion associated with the net acid excretion of the modern diet under the acid-ash diet hypothesis. Am J Clin Nutr 88:1159–1166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fordyce F (2013) Selenium deficiency and toxicity in the environment. In: Selinus O, Alloway B, Centeno JA, Finkelman RB, Fuge R, Lindh U, Smedley P (eds) Medical geology. Springer, p 826Google Scholar
  17. Frassetto LA, Morris RC Jr, Sellmeyer D, Sebastian A (2008) Adverse effects of Na chloride on bone in the aging population resulting from habitual consumption of typical American diets. J Nutr 138:419–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garrett RG (2000) Natural sources of metals in the environment. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 225(6):954–963Google Scholar
  19. Garrett RG (2013) Natural distribution and abundance of elements. In: Selinus O, Alloway B, Centeno JA, Finkelman RB, Fuge R, Lindh U, Smedley P (eds) Medical geology. Springer, p 826Google Scholar
  20. Grandjean AC, Campbell SM (2004) Hydration: fluids for life. ILSI North Americ, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. Grandjean AC, Bartram JK (2011) Essential nature of water for health: water as part of the dietary intake for nutrients and the role of water in hygiene. In: Nriagu JO (ed) Encyclopedia of environmental health, vol 2, pp 594–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Habener JF, Dashe AM, Solomon DH (1964) Response of normal subjects to prolonged high fluid intake. J Appl Physiol 19(1):134–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Halpern GM, Van de Water J, Delebroise A-M (1991) Comparative uptake of calcium from milk and a calcium-rich mineral water in lactose intolerant adults: implications for treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Prev Med 7(6):379–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hamliri A, Kessabi M, Johnson DW, Olson WG (1993) Prevention of nutritional myopathy in sheep grazing selenium-deficient pastures. Small Rumin Res 10:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Herroeder S, Schonherr ME, De Hert SG, Hollmann MW (2011) Mg—essentials for anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology 114:971–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hult A (2007) Well drinking. (Dricka brunn, in Swedish). Atremi, Kristianstads boktryckeriGoogle Scholar
  27. ICRG, Intersalt Cooperative Research Group (1988) Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure: results for 24-hour urinary Na and K excretion. BMJ 297:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. IOM, Institute of Medicine (1997) Dietary reference intakes for Ca, phosphorus, Mg, vitamin D, and fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  29. Jönsson BA (2014) Onkologiska kliniken, The Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; e- mail comm.Google Scholar
  30. Kabata Pendias A, Mukherjee A (2007) Trace elements from soil to human. Springer, p 550Google Scholar
  31. Kabrhel G (1927) Biogennic mineral substances in drinking waters (in Czech). Plyn a voda (Gas and water) 7:245–248Google Scholar
  32. Kaprara E, Kazakisb N, Simeonidisc K, Colesa S, Zouboulisd AI, Samarase P, Mitrakasa M (2015) Occurrence of Cr(VI) in drinking water of Greece and relation to the geological background. J Hazard Mater 281:2–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Karagülle MZ (2012) What’s new in balneology? In: medical hydrology and balneology: environmental aspects. Balnea 6:41–42Google Scholar
  34. Karppanen H, Karppanen P, Mervaala E (2005) Why and how to implement Na, K, Ca, and Mg changes in food items and diets. J Hum Hypertens (19):10–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Keating JP, Schwarz GJ, Dodge PR (1991) Oral water intoxication in infants. Am J Dis Child 145:985–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kobayashi J (1957) On geographical relationship between the chemical nature of river water and death rate from apoplexy. Berichte des Ohara Instituts für landwirtschaftliche Biologie Okyama University, 1957, 11:12–21Google Scholar
  37. Kozisek F (2005) Health risks from drinking demineralized water. In: Nutrients in drinking water. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 148–163Google Scholar
  38. Krizek V (1987) Obrazy z dejin lazenstvi (Pictures from history of balneology) (in Czech). Avicenum, PrahaGoogle Scholar
  39. Leurs LJ, Schouten LJ, Mons MN, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA (2010) Relationship between tap Water hardness, magnesium, and calcium concentration and mortality due to ischemic heart disease or stroke in the Netherlands. Environ Health Perspect 118:414–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Manz F, Wentz A (2005) Hydration status in the United States and Germany. Nutrition Rev 63:555–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Manz F (2007a) Hydration in children. J Am Coll Nutr 26(5):562–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Manz F (2007b) Hydration and disease. J Am Coll Nutr 26:535–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Meriam E (ed) (2004) Elements and their compounds in the environment, vol 3. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, p 475Google Scholar
  44. Meyer TE, Verwoert GC, Hwang SJ, Glazer NL, Smith AV, Frank J A, van Rooij F.J.A. et al. (2010) Genome-wide association studies of serum Mg, K, and Na concentrations identify six loci influencing serum Mg levels. PLoS Genet, e1001045, 6 (8). Available on, http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1001045PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Moynahan EJ (1979) Trace elements in man. In: Selinus O et al (eds) Essentials of medical geology, impacts of the natural environment on public health. Elsevier Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  46. Peacock M (2010) Ca metabolism in health and disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 5:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pecelj-Gec M (2002) Voda i monovalentni elektroliti. In: Kocijancic RI (ed) Higijena. Zavod za udzbenike i nastavna sredstva, Beograd, pp 357–358Google Scholar
  48. Pirklbauer M, Mayer G (2011) The exchangeable ca pool: physiology and pathophysiology in chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 0:1–7Google Scholar
  49. Reimann C, de Caritat P (1998) Chemical elements in the environment. Springer, p 398Google Scholar
  50. Reimann C, Birke M (2010) Geochemistry of European bottled water, vol 268. SchweizerbartscheGoogle Scholar
  51. Ritz P, Berrut G (2005) The importance of good hydration for day-to-day health. Nutr Rev 63(6):6S–13SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Robertson, Manchester (1959) In: Selinus O, Alloway B, Centeno JA, Finkelman RB, Fuge R, Lindh U, Smedley P (eds) Essentials of medical geology, impacts of the natural environment on public health. Elsevier Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  53. Rosborg I, Nihlgård B (2018) Health consequences of acid rain in south West Sweden- influence of acid well water on health and hair mineral pattern. J Geosci Environ Prot (GEP) 6(2). http://www.scirp.org/journal/GEP/
  54. Rose G, Stamler J, Stamler R, Elliott P, Marmot M, Pyorala K et al (1988) Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary Na and K excretion. Br Med J 297:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rubenowitz E, Axelsson G, Rylander R (1999) Mg and Ca in drinking water and death from acute myocardial infarction in women. Epidemiology 10:31–36PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Rylander R, Remer T, Berkemeyer S, Vormann J (2006) Acid-base status affects renal Mg losses in healthy, elderly persons. J Nutr 136:2374–2377PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Sadgir P, Vamanrao A (2003) Water in Vedic literature. In: Abstract proceedings of the 3rd international Water history association conference, Alexandria. http://www.iwha.net/a_abstract.htm
  58. Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM et al (2001) Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary Na and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med 344:3–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Salminen R, Batista MJ, Bidovec M et al (2005) Geochemical atlas of Europe. Part 1 – background information, methodology and maps, geological survey of Finland. Espo:566Google Scholar
  60. Sawka MN, Cheuvront SN, Carter R (2005) Human water needs. Nutr Rev 63(6):30S–39SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schikina MI, Aladinskaya TI, Chyzhov SV, Siniak YE (1984) Artificial re-mineralization of melted glacial water intended for drinking in conditions of alpine expeditions (in Russian). Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med 18(3):95–96Google Scholar
  62. Sebastian A, Frassetto LA, Sellmeyer DE, Merriam RL, Morris RC Jr (2002) Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors. Am J Clin Nutr 76:1308–1316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Selinus O, Alloway B, Centeno JA, Finkelman RB, Fuge R, Lindh U, Smedley P (eds) (2013) Essentials of medical geology. Springer, p 826Google Scholar
  64. Sharp RL (2007) Role of whole foods in promoting hydration after exercise in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 26(5):592S–596SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smedley PL, Kinniburgh DG (2002) A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural waters. Appl Geochem 17:517–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Strohle A, Hahn A, Sebastian A (2010) Estimation of the diet-dependent net acid load in 229 worldwide historically studied hunter-gatherer societies. Am J Clin Nutr 91:406–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Suckling EV (1944) The examination of waters and water supplies, 5th edn. J. & A. Churchill Ltd., London, p 93Google Scholar
  68. Sun Z, Liang P (2008) Determination of Cr(III) and total chromium in water samples by cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Microchim Acta 162:121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thornton I (1983) Applied environmental geochemistry, vol 501. AcademicGoogle Scholar
  70. Thresh JC (1913) Hard v. soft water. Lancet 182(4702):1057–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tortora GJ, Grabowski SR (1996) Principles of anatomy and physiology, 8th edn. Harper Collins, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. Ueki A, Otsuka M (2004) Life style risks of Parkinson’s disease: association between decreased water intake and constipation. J Neurol 251(7):vii18–vii23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. US EPA, United States Environmental Health Agency. (2003) Drinking water advisory. http://water.epa.gov/drink/ndwac/Google Scholar
  74. Voisin A (1959) In: Selinus O, Alloway B, Centeno JA, Finkelman RB, Fuge R, Lindh U, Smedley P (eds) Essentials of medical geology, impacts of the natural environment on public health. Elsevier Academic Press2004Google Scholar
  75. Volkert D, Krevel K, Stehle P (2005) Fluid intake of community-living, independent elderly in Germany – a nationwide, representative study. J Nutr Health Aging 9(5):305–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Vormann J, Remer T (2008) Dietary, metabolic, physiologic, and disease-related aspects of acid-base balance: foreword to the contributions of the second international acid-base symposium. J Nutr 38:413S–414SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wallach J (2007) Interpretation of diagnostic tests, 8th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  78. Wang ZM, Pierson RN Jr, Heymsfield SB (1992) The five level model: a new approach to organizing body composition research. Am J Clin Nutr 56:19–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Weinstein LH, Davison AW (2004) Fluorides in the environment. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  80. Whanger PD (2004) Selenium and its relationship to cancer: an update. Br J Nutr 91:11–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. WHO (2000) World Health Organization. In: Geneva. http://www.who.int/inf-pr-2000/en/pr2000-55.htmlGoogle Scholar
  82. WHO, World Health Organization, Geneva (2017) Guidelines for drinking water quality, 4th ednGoogle Scholar
  83. Yang G, Ge KY, Chen JS, Chen XS (1988) Selenium-related endemic diseases and the daily selenium requirement of humans. World Rev Nutr Diet 55:98–152PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering (SEED)KTH, Royal Institute of EngineeringStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of Water HygieneNational Institute of Public HealthPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Linneaus UniversityKalmarSweden
  4. 4.Department of MedicalSurgical and Advanced Technologies “G. F. Ingrassia”, University of CataniaCataniaItaly
  5. 5.Institute of Public Health of SerbiaBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations