Compact LEA and HIGHT Implementations on 8-Bit AVR and 16-Bit MSP Processors

  • Hwajeong SeoEmail author
  • Kyuhwang An
  • Hyeokdong Kwon
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11402)


In this paper, we revisited the previous LEA and HIGHT implementations on the low-end embedded processors. First, the general purpose registers are fully utilized to cache the intermediate results of delta variable during key scheduling process of LEA. By caching the delta variables, the number of memory access is replaced to the relatively cheap register access. Similarly, the master key and plaintext are cached during key scheduling and encryption of HIGHT block cipher, respectively. Second, stack storage and pointer are fully utilized to store the intermediate results and access the round keys. This approach solves the limited storage problem and saves one general purpose register. Third, indirect addressing mode is more efficient than indexed addressing mode. In the decryption process of LEA, the round key pair is efficiently accessed through indirect addressing with minor address modification. Fourth, 8-bit word operations for HIGHT is efficiently handled by 16-bit wise instruction of 16-bit MSP processors. Finally, the proposed LEA implementations on the representative 8-bit AVR and 16-bit MSP processors are fully evaluated in terms of code size, RAM and execution timing. The proposed implementations over the target processors (8-bit AVR processor, 16-bit MSP processor) are faster than previous works by (13.6%, 9.3%), (0.6%, 8.5%), and (3.4%, 1.5%) for key scheduling, encryption, and decryption, respectively. Similarly, the proposed HIGHT implementations on the 16-bit MSP processors are faster than previous works by 38.6%, 33.7%, and 33.6% for key scheduling, encryption, and decryption, respectively.


LEA HIGHT AVR MSP Software implementation 



This work was supported as part of Military Crypto Research Center (UD170109ED) funded by Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA) and Agency for Defense Development (ADD).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hansung UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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