Parathyroid Anatomy, Embryology and Histology

  • Nigora Rasulova
  • Qaisar Hussain Siraj


The parathyroid glands are responsible for calcium homeostasis through secretion of the parathyroid hormone. These glands were the last organ to be recognised in humans. There are normally two pairs of parathyroid glands, superior and inferior, located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. The superior parathyroid glands develop from the fourth pharyngeal pouch and are generally located on the posteromedial aspect of the middle one-third of the thyroid, whereas the inferior parathyroids, which develop from the third pharyngeal pouch, are more widely distributed in the region below the inferior thyroid artery. The parathyroid glands may be ectopically located and can be found in variable locations along their migratory pathway. The parathyroid gland parenchyma is mostly composed of chief cells responsible for parathyroid hormone secretion and a smaller number of oxyphil and other cells.


Parathyroid glands Osteitis fibrosa cystica Thyroid gland Thymus gland Chief cells Oxyphil cells Endoderm Ectopic parathyroid glands Recurrent laryngeal nerve Hyperparathyroidism Parathyroid diseases Parathyroid hormone Chronic renal insufficiency Secretory vesicles 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nigora Rasulova
    • 1
  • Qaisar Hussain Siraj
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear MedicineFarwaniya HospitalKuwaitKuwait

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