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Heat Pipe and Loop Heat Pipe Technologies and Their Applications in Solar Systems

  • Zhangyuan WangEmail author
  • Haopeng Zhang
  • Fucheng Chen
  • Siming Zheng
  • Zicong Huang
  • Xudong Zhao
Chapter
  • 619 Downloads
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Solar energy is considered as the renewable and carbon-neutral energy source of enough scale to replace fossil fuels. The direct utilisation of solar energy can be categorised into two types, i.e. photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal. However, some disadvantages, e.g. high thermal losses, low conversion rate, still limit the widespread of the solar systems. The solar systems using the heat pipe (HP) and loop heat pipe (LHP) technologies have been developed to tackle the existing problems of the solar system. In this chapter, the working principle and classification of HPs and LHPs for use in the solar system would be comprehensively introduced. The mathematical methods related to the heat transfers limits (i.e. capillary limit, entrainment limit, viscous limit, boiling limit, sonic limit and filled liquid mass limit) and thermal balance (i.e. heat input into the evaporator, heat transportation from the evaporator to the condenser via evaporation and condensation of the heat transfer fluid in the heat pipes, and heat output from the condenser) will be presented. The research works relating the solar systems using heat pipes and loop heat pipes will also be reviewed and analysed from the aspects of characteristic performance, on-site testing, and economic and social assessment. This chapter potentially revealed the further development of HP and/or LHP for use in the solar system.

Keywords

Heat pipe Loop heat pipe Solar system 

Nomenclature

A [m2]

Area

C

Constant

Cp[J/(kg K)]

Specific heat capacity at a constant pressure

Cv[J/(kg K)]

Specific heat capacity at a constant volume

D[m]

Diameter

g [m/s2]

Gravitational acceleration

h[W/(m2 K)]

Convective heat transfer coefficient

hfg[J/kg]

Latent heat of evaporation

L[m]

Length

m [kg or kg/s]

Mass or mass flow rate

M

Mach number

N

Number/quantity

P [Pa]

Pressure

ΔP[Pa]

Pressure drop

Q[W]

Energy flux

rb[m]

Critical radius of bubble generation

R [K/W]

Thermal resistance

Rv[J/(kg K)]

Vapour constant

T [oC]

Temperature

X

Factor relating to the filled liquid mass, 0.8 for evaporation and condensation sections and 1 for adiabatic section

Z

Shape factor, 1 for circular and 0.833 for rectangular shapes

Γ

Specific heat ratio

Ε

Emissivity

Φ

Porosity

δ[m]

Thickness

λ [W/(m K)]

Thermal conductivity

μ [Pa s]

Dynamic viscosity

ρ [kg/m3]

Density

σ [N/m or W/(m2 K4)]

Surface tension or Stefan Boltzmann constant

Subscripts

AMB

Ambient

bl

Boiling limit

c

Condenser

cc

Compensation chamber

cl

Capillary limit

e

Evaporator

el

Entrainment limit

Fl

Filled liquid mass limit

g

Gravity

l

Liquid

LF

Liquid film

LL

Liquid line

SL

Sonic limit

V

Vapour

VL

Viscous limit

W

Wick

as

Adiabatic section

I

Inner surface or heat input

loss

Heat dispersed to the ambient

min

Minimum values

o

Outer surface or heat output

s

Wick in the solid form

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFE0133300), Guangdong Provincial Key Country Joint Funding Projects, China (2018A050501002) and EU H2020 Research and Innovation Framework Program (734340-DEW-COOL-4-CDC-MSCA-RIS).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhangyuan Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Haopeng Zhang
    • 1
  • Fucheng Chen
    • 1
  • Siming Zheng
    • 1
  • Zicong Huang
    • 1
  • Xudong Zhao
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Civil and Transportation EngineeringGuangdong University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Engineering and Computer ScienceUniversity of HullHullUK

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