Mycobiome of Brevipalpus Mite Strains and Insights on Metabolic Function in the Bacteriome of the Tetranychoidea Mites
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Studies of arthropod microbiota and arthropod-microbe interactions are helping elucidate the strategies adopted by arthropods to colonize and succeed in complex environments, as well as leading to the development of unique pest management approaches. Tetranychoidea (Acariformes: Trombidiformes) are important pests of several crops due to their feeding habits and transmission of pathogens. In tetranychoid mites, the endosymbiont bacterium Cardinium represents a tantalizing first target for pest management research because it affects mite reproduction. In this study, we used previously published 16S ribosomal RNA sequence data of the microbiome bacteria in Brevipalpus yothersi (Baker 1949), Raoiella indica Hirst, 1924, and Oligonychus sp. and the PICRUSt pipeline to predict the content of genes with metabolic function in the bacteriome of the mites. Our results indicate that the bacteriomes of B. yothersi and Oligonychus sp. (which harbor Cardinium) contain significantly more genes involved in the metabolism of indole-alkaloids, glutamine, and biotin when compared with R. indica (which has no Cardinium). The genes for metabolism of biotin and nicotinate are also more abundant in adult B. yothersi and Oligonychus sp. than in their eggs, which is associated with lower abundance of Cardinium in the eggs. The metabolic specialization of Cardinium-dominated bacteriomes could also lead to lack of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics and DDT. While these results are predictive, they highlight the necessity of testing these variations in laboratory. We also present initial data on fungal microbial diversity associated with four different strains of the phytophagous mite vector Brevipalpus, which showed significant variation between strains, while all are dominated by the skin- and surface-specialist genus Malassezia.
KeywordsFalse-spider mite Red-palm mite Malassezia Acari metabolism Cardinium Antibiotic resistance Xenobiotics Amino acid metabolism Vitamin supplementation
To USDA/APHIS 8130-0059-CA and USDA-Hatch 427 for partial financing of this work and NIFA-06242 grant for infrastructural improvement.
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