New Findings on Tarsonemid Mites (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) Under the LT-SEM (Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy)—The Case of Genera Daidalotarsonemus and Excelsotarsonemus

  • J. M. RezendeEmail author
  • G. R. Bauchan
  • A. C. Lofego
  • W. C. Welbourn
  • Ronald Ochoa


Daidalotarsonemus De Leon and Excelsotarsonemus Ochoa and Naskręcki are tarsonemids considered to be plant inhabiting genera. Both present complex structured bodies which are very difficult to be interpreted by traditional light microscopy techniques. In light microscopy slide mounting distorts the individual by flattening the specimen between the slide and the coverslip. In recent years Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LT-SEM) has been incorporated to acarological studies, improving the understanding about the external morphology of mites in general. The impact of LT-SEM analysis on studies of the tarsonemid genera is discussed here. The use of this technology allows the recognition of small details e.g. palpal setae, protuberances on palpal tibiotarsus, cheliceral tips, dorsal ornamentation and chaetotaxy among others. This information is important not only for diagnosis but also to understand their ecology and behaviour.


Acari Gliding mites Phylogeny Taxonomy CRYO-SEM 



To FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) (Procs. 2015/19867-0 and 2016/16779-5) for financial support. To São Paulo State University (IBILCE-UNESP), Smithsonian Natural History Museum (USNM), National Agricultural Library (NAL-USDA), Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL-USDA), for the support and assistance with references for this study. To Dr. Gregory Evans (APHIS-USDA) and Andrew Ulsamer (ARS-USDA) for their review and comments on the manuscript. To Chris Pooley (ECMU-USDA) for his support with all the images. To Joe Mowery (ECMU-USDA) for his support with the 3D models of tarsonemids. To Debra Creel (ARS-USDA) for her support with the references. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA; USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Rezende
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • G. R. Bauchan
    • 3
  • A. C. Lofego
    • 1
  • W. C. Welbourn
    • 4
  • Ronald Ochoa
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Zoology and BotanyInstitute of Biosciences, Humanities and Exact Sciences (IBILCE), São Paulo State University (UNESP)São José do Rio PretoBrazil
  2. 2.Acari Collection, Department of EntomologyNHNM, Smithsonian InstitutionWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Electron and Confocal Microscopy Unit, United States Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research ServiceBeltsvilleUSA
  4. 4.Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant IndustryGainesvilleUSA
  5. 5.Systematic Entomology Laboratory, United States Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research ServiceBeltsvilleUSA

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