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Cost Optimization When Using 3-D Mapping Systems for a Non-fluoroscopic EP Lab

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There is a wider adoption of 3-D mapping systems all around the world, to decrease (ALARA: as low as reasonable achievable) or to eliminate fluoroscopy in the electrophysiology (EP) lab. These systems need the use of proprietary either patches or catheters that increases the cost of the EP procedures. For arrhythmias involving the so-called complex substrates, it is now widely acceptable to use these 3-D mapping systems as a standard of care. Cost seems to be a barrier to expand 3-D mapping systems utilization to simple substrates or to all cases at the EP lab. We discuss different components of cost while using these systems, and we describe how we do manage to constraint cost to expand 3-D use to every substrate and to become a routine utilization in our EP lab.


  • Ablation
  • Cost
  • Cost optimization
  • Radiofrequency
  • Cryocatheter
  • Cryoablation
  • Non-fluoro
  • Less-fluoro
  • Zero-fluoro
  • Fluoroscopy reduction
  • 3-D mapping

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Correspondence to Félix Ayala-Paredes .

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Moriña Vazquez, P., Ayala-Paredes, F. (2019). Cost Optimization When Using 3-D Mapping Systems for a Non-fluoroscopic EP Lab. In: Proietti, R., Wang, Y., Yao, Y., Zhong, G., Lin Wu, S., Ayala-Paredes, F. (eds) Cardiac Electrophysiology Without Fluoroscopy. Springer, Cham.

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