• Adrienne HéritierEmail author
  • Katharina L. Meissner
  • Catherine Moury
  • Magnus G. Schoeller
Part of the European Administrative Governance book series (EAGOV)


This chapter introduces the research question of why the EP succeeded in widening its formal and informal powers in crucial areas of EU decision-making. Further, the chapter situates the book in the wide array of research on the EP. It also outlines the rationale of focusing on the causes rather than consequences of parliamentary empowerment. Among a range of factors facilitating the EP’s empowerment, we endorse the perspective of parliamentary self-empowerment.


European parliament Empowerment Informal rules 


  1. Benedetto, G. (2005). Rapporteurs as Legislative Entrepreneurs: The Dynamics of the Codecision Procedure in Europe’s Parliament. Journal of European Public Policy, 12(1), 67–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. De Ruiter, R., & Neuhold, C. (2012). Why Is Fast Track the Way to Go? Justifications for Early Agreement in the Co-decision Procedure and Their Effects. European Law Journal, 18(4), 536–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Farrell, H., & Héritier, A. (2003). Formal and Informal Institutions Under Codecision: Continuous Constitution Building in Europe. Governance, 16(4), 577–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Farrell, H., & Héritier, A. (2004). Interorganizational Negotiation and Intraorganizational Power in Shared Decision Making: Early Agreements Under Codecision and Their Impact on the European Parliament and Council. Comparative Political Studies, 37(10), 1184–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Farrell, H., & Héritier, A. (2005). A rationalist-Institutionalist Explanation of Endogenous Regional Integration. Journal of European Public Policy, 12(2), 273–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Farrell, H., & Héritier, A. (2007). Codecision and Institutional Change. West European Politics, 30(2), 285–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goetze, S., & Rittberger, B. (2010). A Matter of Habit? The Sociological Foundations of Empowering the European Parliament. Comparative European Politics, 8(1), 37–54.Google Scholar
  8. Haroche, P. (2018). The Inter-parliamentary Alliance: How National Parliaments Empowered the European Parliament. Journal of European Public Policy, 25(7), 1010–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Héritier, A. (2007). Explaining Institutional Change in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hix, S. (2002). Constitutional Agenda-Setting Through Discretion in Rule Interpretation: Why the European Parliament Won at Amsterdam. British Journal of Political Science, 32(2), 259–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Huber, K., & Shackleton, M. (2013). Codecision: A Practitioner’s View from Inside the Parliament. Journal of European Public Policy, 20(7), 1040–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. König, T. (2008). Why Do Member States Empower the European Parliament? Journal of European Public Policy, 15(2), 167–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lindner, J. (2006). Conflict and Change in EU Budgetary Politics. Oxon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lindner, J., & Rittberger, B. (2003). The Creation, Interpretation and Contestation of Institutions—Revisiting Historical Institutionalism. Journal of Common Market Studies, 41(3), 445–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moravcsik, A. (1998). The Choice for Europe: Social Purposes and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Moravcsik, A., & Nicolaïdis, K. (1999). Explaining the Treaty of Amsterdam: Interests, Influence, Institutions. Journal of Common Market Studies, 37(1), 59–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Moury, C. (2007). Explaining the European Parliament’s Right to Appoint and Invest the Commission. West European Politics, 30(2), 367–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mühlböck, M. (2013). Linking Council and European Parliament? Voting Unity of National Parties in Bicameral EU Decision-Making. Journal of European Public Policy, 20(4), 571–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mühlböck, M., & Rittberger, B. (2015). The Council, the European Parliament, and the Paradox of Inter-Institutional Cooperation. European Integration Online Papers (EIoP), 19(4), 1–20.Google Scholar
  20. Reh, C., Héritier, A., Bressanelli, E., & Koop, C. (2013). The Informal Politics of Legislation: Explaining Secluded Decision Making in the European Union. Comparative European Politics, 46(9), 1112–1142.Google Scholar
  21. Riddervold, M., & Rosén, G. (2016). Trick and Treat: How the Commission and the European Parliament Exert Influence in EU Foreign and Security Policies. Journal of European Integration, 38(6), 687–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rittberger, B. (2003). The Creation and Empowerment of the European Parliament. Journal of Common Market Studies, 41(2), 203–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rittberger, B. (2005). Building Europe’s Parliament: Democratic Representation Beyond the Nation State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rittberger, B. (2012). Institutionalizing Representative Democracy in the European Union: The Case of the European Parliament. Journal of Common Market Studies, 50(S1), 18–37.Google Scholar
  25. Rittberger, B. (2014). Integration Without Representation? The European Parliament and the Reform of Economic Governance in the EU. Journal of Common Market Studies, 52(6), 1174–1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rittberger, B., & Schimmelfennig, F. (2006). Explaining the Constitutionalization of the European Union. Journal of European Public Policy, 13(8), 1148–1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Roederer-Rynning, C., & Schimmelfennig, F. (2012). Bringing Codecision to Agriculture: A Hard Case of Parliamentarization. Journal of European Public Policy, 19(7), 951–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rosén, G. (2015). EU Confidential: The European Parliament’s Involvement in EU Security and Defence Policy. Journal of Common Market Studies, 53(2), 383–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Scharpf, F. W. (1988). The Joint-Decision Trap: Lessons from German Federalism and European Integration. Public Administration, 66(3), 239–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Toshkov, D., & Rasmussen, A. (2012). Time to Decide: The Effect of Early Agreements on Legislative Duration in the EU. European Integration Online Papers (EIoP), 14(11), 1–20.Google Scholar
  31. Tsebelis, G., & Garret, G. (2000). Legislative Politics in the European Union. European Union Politics, 1(1), 9–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wisniewski, E. (2013). The Influence of the European Parliament on the European External Action Service. European Foreign Affairs Review, 18(1), 81–101.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrienne Héritier
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katharina L. Meissner
    • 2
  • Catherine Moury
    • 3
  • Magnus G. Schoeller
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Political and Social Sciences and Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced StudiesEuropean University InstituteSan Domenico di Fiesole, FlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Centre for European Integration Research, IPWUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Universidade Nova de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  4. 4.Centre for European Integration Research, IPWUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations