In the following discussion we remain in the simple setting of Sect. 15.2, namely that of a single binary risk factor with the values “exposed” and “not exposed”, and a binary outcome variable with the values “diseased” and “not diseased”. We suggest that the gentle reader take another look at the discussion in Sect. 13.4 of the two ways of analyzing a 2 × 2−Table and in Sect. 15.2 of the basic concepts underlying epidemiologic studies.