The Immune System

  • Martin R. Fulford
  • Nikolai R. Stankiewicz
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


Pathogenic organisms use our bodies to replicate, grow and survive. Their activity on and within us, and how our bodies respond to this, results in the signs and symptoms of disease. To protect ourselves from the myriad of possible threats, we have a system of defences, the immune system. This compromises an incredibly complex interplay of chemicals and cells that interact to isolate, destroy and remove potential threats.

Further Reading

  1. Clough S, Shaw A, Morgan C. Tuberculosis and oral healthcare provision. Br Dent J. 2018;224(12):931–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Jamrozik E, Handfield T, Selgelid MJ. Victims, vectors and villains: are those who opt out of vaccination morally responsible for the deaths of others? J Med Ethics. 2016;42(12):762–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ramsay M, editor. Immunisation against infectious disease. London: Public Health England; 2017.Google Scholar
  4. Taylor LE, Swerdfeger AL, Eslick GD. Vaccines are not associated with autism: an evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Vaccine. 2014;32(29):3623–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin R. Fulford
    • 1
  • Nikolai R. Stankiewicz
    • 2
  1. 1.WedmoreUK
  2. 2.East LydfordUK

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