After Socialism: Comparisons Between the Past and the Present
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This chapter considers the transition from Communism to democracy, which was marked in matters academic by widespread continuities: no purges but accelerated growth and some innovations. Among the latter must be counted project-based funding (introduced by the Soros Foundation in 1984 and followed by OTKA in 1986), the appearance of private research institutions such as TÁRKI and universities such as the Central European University (CEU), the abolition of ‘academic candidacy’, its replacement with PhD degrees and the generalization of the Bologna curriculum. Collective characteristics of SSH staff by discipline since 1945 are presented—size, degrees, productivity, feminization, research orientation—as well as markers of Westernization indicated by Hungarian and foreign books available and translated over time.