The Reconstruction of the Social Sciences after Stalinism, 1963–1989
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The post-Stalinist ‘thaw’ after the Revolution in October 1956 and its bloody aftermath, together with a degree of political liberalism, enabled the re-establishment of sociology together with other SSH disciplines, which is discussed in this chapter. This was part of the ‘Kádárist deal’ with intellectuals, providing new sources of funding, easier contacts with the West and—still oscillating—the relaxation of political surveillance. The 1960s were a period of intensive institutional innovation, with the expansion of the network of academic agencies in the SSH. In spite of periods of waiting and regression, by the late 1970s sociology had achieved a level of professionalization with two university departments, several specialist research centers, a professional association and a journal of its own. The same applied, more or less, to kindred disciplines like psychology, ethnology, political science and demography. Some of their staff were active in the reborn ‘second society’ opposing the communist nomenklatura.