Socio-Historical Preliminaries

  • Victor Karády
  • Péter Tibor Nagy
Part of the Sociology Transformed book series (SOTR)


In this chapter the emergence of modern Hungary, a uniquely multi-ethnic and multi-denominational society, the consequences of the Austro-Hungarian compromise (1867) and the rapid economic and cultural development under the dual monarchy are discussed. The modernization of intellectual institutions (universities, the Academy of Science, statistical services) played a growing role, together with the consolidation of the political and administrative apparatus and ongoing urbanization. Most of the creative intelligentsia were concentrated in the Budapest metropolis, and by 1900 a critical mass of intellectuals, sharing an interest in various cultural innovations, were demanding scholarly studies of their semi-modernized country, which still bore the remnants of feudalism, while major economic and cultural functions were developed by mobile minorities—mostly assimilated Jews and Germans—thanks to their entrepreneurial agency and educational excellence.


Nation building The compromise (AusgleichMobile minorities Creative intellectuals Multi-ethnic nation state Multi-denominational society Jews as modernizers State philo-Semitism Church anti-Semitism Educational modernization Statistical services 

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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor Karády
    • 1
  • Péter Tibor Nagy
    • 2
  1. 1.Central European UniversityBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Budapest John Wesley CollegeBudapestHungary

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