Advertisement

Who Is in the Commons: Defining Community, Commons, and Time in Long-Term Natural Resource Management

  • Michael R. Dove
  • Amy JohnsonEmail author
  • Manon Lefebvre
  • Paul Burow
  • Wen Zhou
  • Lav Kanoi
Chapter
  • 316 Downloads
Part of the Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation book series (STHE, volume 11)

Abstract

When we speak of long-term community resource management, it is necessary to qualify our terms. How is the community enacting resource management defined? How are communities practicing collective resource management relate to others in the commons, such as international development organizations and states? How do community practices shift in and out of focus as resource management strategies change over time? The chapter addresses these thematic questions through a series of case studies spanning continents and centuries. To understand participation in community resource management projects, we describe women-focused mangrove reforestation program in Madagascar alongside the management of bison-kin by the Salish and Kootenai on the National Bison Range in the USA. These cases extend the community into relations with state and non-state actors. Such dimension becomes the center of attention in examples from forest conservation in the Congo Basin and step-well water management in colonial India. The practices valued as community resource management today were not always thought well of and may be dismissed in the future. Changing public attitudes toward swidden agriculture is a case in point. Through the temporality of swidden, we conclude that changing attitudes reflect the confrontation between local and metropolitan visions of proper relations between society and environment. What is asked of community resource management is to determine these relationships through the promotion of specific practices, we are mindful who participates in decision-making and what is asked in every encounter.

Keywords

Resource management Community Commons Cooperation 

References

  1. Agrawal, A. (2003). Sustainable governance of common-pool resources: Context, methods, and politics. Annual Review of Anthropology, 32, 243–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Block, W., & Jankovic, I. (2016). Tragedy of the partnership: A critique of elinor ostrom. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 75(2), 289–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown, J. (1978). Sir Proby Cautley (1802–1871), a pioneer of Indian irrigation. In A. R. Hall & N. Smith (Eds.), History of technology (Vol. III). London: Mansell.Google Scholar
  4. Cairns, M. (Ed.). (2007). Voices from the forest: Integrating indigenous knowledge into sustainable upland farming. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
  5. Cairns, M. (Ed.). (2015). Shifting cultivation and environmental change: Indigenous people, agriculture and forest conservation. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  6. Carneiro, R. L. (1960). Slash-and-burn agriculture: A closer look at its implications for settlement patterns. In A. F. C. Wallace (Ed.), Men and cultures (pp. 229–234). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  7. Coder, G. D. (1975). The national movement to preserve the American buffalo in the United States and Canada between 1880 and 1920. PhD Dissertation. The Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  8. Condominas, G. (1957). In A. Foulke (Ed.), We have eaten the forest: The story of a Montagnard Village in the central highlands of Vietnam. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  9. Conklin, H. (1977 [1957]). Hanuno’o agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  10. Coquery-Vidrovitch, C. (2001 [1972]). Le Congo au temps des grandes compagnies concessionnaires 1898–1930. Tome 1. In Editions de I’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (Vol. 1).Google Scholar
  11. Dasgupta, R. (2012). Urbanising cholera: The social determinants of its re-emergence. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan.Google Scholar
  12. Dharampal. (2000). Collected writings, volume IV: Panchayat Raj and India’s polity. Goa: Other India Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dove, M. R. (2011). The banana tree at the gate: The history of marginal peoples and global markets in Borneo. In J. C. Scott (Ed.), Yale agrarian studies series. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Dove, M. R. (2015). Linnaeus’ study of Swedish swidden cultivation: Pioneering ethnographic work on the ‘economy of nature’. Ambio, 44(3), 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Echols, J. M., & Shadily, H. (1992). Kamus Indonesia-Inggris: An Indonesian-English dictionary (3rd ed.). Jakarta: P. T. Gramedia.Google Scholar
  16. FAO. (2015). Global forest resources assessment 2015: How are the world’s forests changing? Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  17. Freeman, D. (1970 [1955]). Report on the Iban. New York: The Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  18. Giles-Vernick, T. (2002). Cutting the vines of the past: Environmental histories of the central African rain forest. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.Google Scholar
  19. Gupta, N. (1981). Delhi between two empires 1803–1931: Society, government and urban growth. In The Delhi omnibus. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Heinimann, A., Mertz, O., Frolking, S., Christensen, A. E., Hurni, K., Sedano, F., et al. (2017). A global view of shifting cultivation: Recent, current, and future extent. PLoS One, 12(9), e0184479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hornaday, W. T. (1887). The passing of the buffalo. Rochester, NY: Schlicht & Field.Google Scholar
  22. Isenberg, A. (2000). The destruction of the bison: An environmental history, 1750–1920. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Izikowitz, K. G. (1951). Lamet: Hill peasants in French Indochina. Göteborg: Etnografiska Museet.Google Scholar
  24. Jacoby, K. (2001). Crimes against nature: Squatters, poachers, thieves, and the hidden history of American conservation. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Kunnas, J. (2005). A dense and sickly mist from thousands of bog fires: An attempt to compare the energy consumption in slash-and-burn cultivation and burning cultivation of peatlands in Finland in 1820–1920. Environment and History, 11, 431–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lawrence, D., & Schlesinger, W. H. (2001). Changes in soil phosphorus during 200 years of shifting cultivation in Indonesia. Ecology, 82(10), 2769–2780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li, T. M. (2007). The will to improve: Governmentality, development, and the practice of politics. Chapel Hill, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mertz, O., Egay, K., Bruun, T. B., & Colding, T. S. (2013). The last swiddens of Sarawak, Malaysia. Human Ecology, 41(1), 109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mertz, O., Padoch, C., Fox, J., Cramb, R. A., Leisz, S. J., Lam, N. T., et al. (2009). Swidden change in Southeast Asia: Understanding causes and consequences. Human Ecology, 37(3), 259–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meunier, Q., Federspiel, M., Moumbogou, C., Grégoire, B., Doucet, J.-L., & Vermeulen, C. (2011). The first community forests of Gabon: Towards sustainable local forest management? Nature et Faune, 25(2), 40–45.Google Scholar
  31. Mishra, A. (1993). Aaj bhi khare hai talaab [The ponds are still relevant]. New Delhi: Gandhi Shanti Pratishthan.Google Scholar
  32. Myllyntaus, T. & Mattila, T. (2002). Decline or increase? The standing timber stock in Finland, 1800–1997. Ecological Economics, 41(2), 271–288.Google Scholar
  33. Naz, F., & Subramanian, S. V. (2010). Water management across space and time in India (ZEF working paper series) (Vol. 61). Bonn: Center for Development Research. Retrieved October 27, 2018, from https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/88305/1/639006426.pdfGoogle Scholar
  34. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Otto, J. S., & Anderson, N. E. (1982). Slash-and-burn cultivation in the highlands south: A problem in comparative agricultural history. Comparative Study of Society and History, 24, 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Padoch, C., Coffey, K., Mertz, O., Leisz, S. J., Fox, J., & Wadley, R. L. (2010). The demise of swidden in Southeast Asia? Local realities and regional ambiguities. Geografisk Tidsskrift, Danish Journal of Geography, 107(1), 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pourtier, R. (1989). Le Gabon: Etat et developpement (Vol. 2). Paris: Harmattan.Google Scholar
  38. Prasad, B. (2018). India foundation for the arts. Website: Retrieved October 27, 2018, from http://indiaifa.org/grants-projects/bhagwati-prasad.html
  39. Prasad, B. (2011). The water cookbook. Delhi: The Sarai Programme, CSDS. Available online: Retrieved October 10, 2018, from http://sarai.net/the-water-cookbook/Google Scholar
  40. Rostow, W. W. (1960). Stages of economic growth, a non-communist manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Schmidt, J. J., & Dowsley, M. (2010). Hunting with polar bears: Problems with the passive properties of the commons. Human Ecology, 38, 377–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Scott, J. C. (1998). Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Scott, J. C. (2009). The art of not being governed: An anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Sigaut, F. (1979). Swidden cultivation in Europe: A question for tropical anthropologists. Social Science Information, 18(4/5), 679–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stoll, S. (2017). Ramp hollow: The ordeal of appalachia. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  46. Taneja, A. (2018). Jinnealogy: Time, islam, and ecological thought in the medieval ruins of Delhi. California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Thrupp, L. A., Hecht, S., & Browder, J. (1997). The diversity and dynamics of shifting cultivation: Myths, realities, and policy implications. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  48. Trefethen, J. (1961). Crusade for wildlife: Highlights in conservation progress. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.Google Scholar
  49. Van Vliet, N., Mertz, O., Heinimann, A., Langanke, T., Pascual, U., Schmook, B., et al. (2012). Trends, drivers and impacts of changes in swidden cultivation in tropical forest-agriculture frontiers: A global assessment. Global Environmental Change, 22(2), 418–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vansina, J. M. (1990). Paths in the rainforests: Toward a history of political tradition in equatorial Africa. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  51. Walters, G., Schleicher, J., Hymas, O., & Coad, L. (2015). Evolving hunting practices in Gabon: Lessons for community-based conservation interventions. Ecology and Society, 20(4), 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Weimarck, G. (1968). Ulfshult: Investigations concerning the use of soil and forest in Ulfshult, Parish of Örkened, during the last 250 years. Lund: C.W.K. Gleerup.Google Scholar
  53. Whealdon, B. I. (2001). In R. Bigart (Ed.), ‘I will be meat for my salish’: The buffalo and the Montana writers project interviews on the flathead Indian reservation. Pablo, MT: Salish Kootenai College Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael R. Dove
    • 1
  • Amy Johnson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Manon Lefebvre
    • 1
  • Paul Burow
    • 1
  • Wen Zhou
    • 1
  • Lav Kanoi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologySchool of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations