Advertisement

The Scale, Governance, and Sustainability of Central Places in Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica

  • Gary M. FeinmanEmail author
  • David M. Carballo
Chapter
Part of the Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation book series (STHE, volume 11)

Abstract

Examinations of the variation and relative successes or failures of past large-scale societies have long involved attempts to reconcile efforts at generalization and the identification of specific factors with explanatory value for regional trajectories. Although historical particulars are critical to understanding individual cases, there are both scholarly and policy rationales for drawing broader implications regarding the growing corpus of cross-cultural data germane to understanding variability in the constitution of human societies, past and present. Archaeologists have recently highlighted how successes and failures in communal-resource management can be studied over the long term through the material record to both engage and enhance transdisciplinary research on cooperation and collective action. In this article we consider frameworks that have been traditionally employed in studies of the rise, diversity, and fall of preindustrial urban aggregations. We suggest that a comparative theoretical perspective that foregrounds collective-action problems, unaligned individual and group interests, and the social mechanisms that promote or hamper cooperation advances our understanding of variability in these early cooperative arrangements. We apply such a perspective to an examination of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican urban centers to demonstrate tendencies for more collective systems to be larger and longer lasting than less collective ones, likely reflecting greater sustainability in the face of the ecological and cultural perturbations specific to the region and era.

Keywords

Collective action Resource management Population Political economy Urbanism Mesoamerica 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Ludomir Lozny and Thomas McGovern for their editorial leadership, which has culminated with the publication of this chapter. Christopher Pool, Peter Peregrine, Linda Nicholas, Daniel Finkelstein, and Michael E. Smith provided highly constructive comments to help us improve the manuscript. Pool also generously provided unpublished data. All misrepresentations of the cases in the study remain our own. An earlier version of this manuscript was presented in a 2013 session at the American Anthropological Association meeting.

References

  1. Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. A. (2012). Why nations fail. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, R. M. C. (1966). The evolution of urban society. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  3. Adger, W. N. (2003). Social capital, collective action, and adaptation in climate change. Economic Geography, 79, 387–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahlquist, J. L., & Levi, M. (2011). Leadership: What it means, what it does, and what we want to know about it. Annual Review of Political Science, 14, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arieta Baizabal, V. (2013). Densidad poblacional olmeca y sus implicaciones en el sitio arqueológico de San Lorenzo, Veracruz. PhD dissertation, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City.Google Scholar
  6. Armillas, P. (1951). Tecnología, formaciones socio-económicas, y religión en Mesoamérica. In S. Tax (Ed.), The civilizations of ancient America, twenty-ninth international congress of Americanists (pp. 19–30). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, J. L. (1998). The state and wetland agriculture in Mesoamerica. Culture & Agriculture, 20, 78–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barlow, R. H. (1949). The extent of the empire of the Culhua Mexica. Ibero-Americana 28. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  9. Barnhart, E. L. (2008). Palenque: Urban city of the ancient Maya. In A. G. Mastache, R. H. Cobean, Á. García Cook, & K. G. Hirth (Eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica (Vol. 2, pp. 165–195). Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.Google Scholar
  10. Berdan, F. F. (1977). Distributive mechanisms in the Aztec economy. In R. H. Halperin & J. Dow (Eds.), Peasant livelihood: Studies in economic anthropology and cultural ecology (pp. 91–101). New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  11. Berdan, F. F. (1985). Markets in the economy of ancient Mexico. In S. Plattner (Ed.), Markets and marketing (pp. 339–367). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  12. Blanton, R. E. (1978). Monte Albán: Settlement patterns at the ancient Zapotec capital. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. Blanton, R. E. (2010). Collective action and adaptive socioecological cycles in premodern states. Cross-Cultural Research, 44, 41–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blanton, R. E. (2012). Cities and urbanism in prehispanic Mesoamerica. In D. L. Nichols & C. A. Pool (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Mesoamerican archaeology (pp. 708–725). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Blanton, R., & Fargher, L. (2008). Collective action in the formation of pre-modern states. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blanton, R., & Fargher, L. (2011). The collective logic of pre-modern cities. World Archaeology, 43, 505–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blanton, R. E., & Fargher, L. F. (2016). How humans cooperate: Confronting the challenges of collective action. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  18. Blanton, R. E., Feinman, G. M., Kowalewski, S. A., & Peregrine, P. N. (1996). A dual-processual theory for the evolution of Mesoamerican civilization. Current Anthropology, 37, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boettiger, C., & Hastings, A. (2013). From patterns to predictions. Nature, 493, 157–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boix, C. (2015). Political order and inequality: Their foundations and their consequences for human welfare. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Broms, R. (2015). Putting up or shutting up: On the individual-level relationship between taxpaying and political interest in a developmental context. Journal of Development Studies, 51, 93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Butzer, K. W. (2012). Collapse, environment, and society. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 109, 3632–3639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Calnek, E. (2003). Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolco: The natural history of a city. In W. T. Sanders, A. G. Mastache, & R. H. Cobean (Eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica (Vol. 1, pp. 149–202). Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.Google Scholar
  24. Carballo, D. M. (Ed.). (2013). Cooperation and collective action: Archaeological perspectives. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  25. Carballo, D. M. (2016). Urbanization and religion in ancient central Mexico. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Carballo, D. M., & Feinman, G. M. (2016). Cooperation, collective action, and the archaeology of large-scale societies. Evolutionary Anthropology, 25, 288–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carballo, D. M., Roscoe, P., & Feinman, G. M. (2014). Cooperation and collective action in the cultural evolution of complex societies. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 21, 98–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Castells, M. (1978). City, class and power. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chase, A. F., & Chase, D. Z. (2009). Symbolic egalitarianism and homogenized distributions in the archaeological record at Caracol, Belize: Method, theory, and complexity. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, 6, 15–24.Google Scholar
  30. Chase, D. Z., & Chase, A. F. (2017). Caracol, Belize, and changing perceptions of Ancient Maya society. Journal of Archaeological Research, 25, 185–249.Google Scholar
  31. Childe, V. G. (1942). What happened in history. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  32. Cobos, R. (2003). Ancient community form and social complexity at Chichen Itza, Yucatan. In A. G. Mastache, W. T. Sanders, & R. H. Cobean (Eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica. (Vol. 1, pp. 451–472). Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.Google Scholar
  33. Coe, M. D., & Diehl, R. A. (1981). In the land of the Olmec. Vol. 1 of The archaeology of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  34. Cowgill, G. L. (2008). An update on Teotihuacan. Antiquity, 82, 962–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Crumley, C. L. (1987). Celtic settlement before the conquest: The dialectics of landscape and power. In C. L. Crumley & W. H. Marquardt (Eds.), Regional dynamics: Burgundian landscapes in historical perspective (pp. 403–429). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Culbert, T. P., Kosakowsky, L. J., Fry, R. E., & Haviland, W. A. (1990). The population of Tikal, Guatemala. In T. Patrick Culbert & D. S. Rice (Eds.), Precolumbian population history in the Maya Lowlands (pp. 103–122). Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  37. Cyphers, A. (2012). Las bellas teorías y los terribles hechos: Controversias sobre los olmecas del Preclásico Inferior. Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Google Scholar
  38. D’Altroy, T. N., & Earle, T. K. (1985). Staple finance, wealth finance, and storage in the Inka economy. Current Anthropology, 26, 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dahlin, B. H. (2009). Ahead of its time? The remarkable Early Classic Maya economy of Chunchuchmil. Journal of Social Archaeology, 9, 341–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dubreuil, B. (2010). Human evolution and the origins of hierarchies: The state of nature. New York: Norton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eakin, H. (2006). Weathering risk in rural Mexico: Climatic, institutional, and economic change. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  42. Earle, T. (2011). Chiefs, chieftaincies, chiefdoms, and chiefly confederacies: Power in the evolution of political systems. Social Evolution & History, 10, 27–54.Google Scholar
  43. Fargher, L. F., Heredia Espinoza, V. Y., & Blanton, R. E. (2011). Alternative pathways to power in Late Postclassic highland Mesoamerica. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 30, 306–326.Google Scholar
  44. Fash, B., Fash, W., Lane, S., Larios, R., Schele, L., Stomper, J., & Stuart, D. (1992). Investigations of a classic Maya Council house in Copán, Honduras. Journal of Field Archaeology, 19, 419–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fash, W. L. (2002). Religion and human agency in ancient Maya history: Tales from the hieroglyphic stairway. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 12, 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fash, W. L. (2008). Ideology and exchange in the evolution of a pluri-ethnic city on the eastern frontier of Mesoamerica. In A. G. Mastache, R. H. Cobean, Á. García Cook, & K. G. Hirth (Eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica (Vol. 2, pp. 197–226). Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.Google Scholar
  47. Feinman, G. M. (1995). The emergence of inequality: A focus on strategies and processes. In T. D. Price & G. M. Feinman (Eds.), Foundations of social inequality (pp. 255–279). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  48. Feinman, G. M. (1999). Rethinking our assumptions: Economic specialization at the household scale in ancient Ejutla, Oaxaca, Mexico. In J. M. Skibo & G. M. Feinman (Eds.), Pottery and people: A dynamic interaction (pp. 81–98). Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  49. Feinman, G. M. (2001). Mesoamerican political complexity: The corporate–network dimension. In J. Haas (Ed.), From leaders to rulers (pp. 151–175). New York: Kluwer/Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  50. Feinman, G. M. (2010). A dual-processual perspective on the power and inequality in the contemporary United States: Framing political economy for the present and the past. In T. D. Price & G. M. Feinman (Eds.), Pathways to power: New perspectives on the emergence of social inequality (pp. 255–288). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  51. Feinman, G. M. (2013). The emergence of social complexity: Why more than population size matters. In D. M. Carballo (Ed.), Cooperation and collective action: Archaeological perspectives (pp. 35–56). Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  52. Feinman, G. M. (2018). The governance and leadership of prehispanic Mesoamerican polities: New perspectives and comparative implications. Cliodynamics: The Journal of Quantitative History and Cultural Evolution, 9(2), 1–39. https://escholarship.org/uc/irows_cliodynamics
  53. Feinman, G. M., & Garraty, C. P. (2010). Preindustrial markets and marketing: Archaeological perspectives. Annual Review of Anthropology, 39, 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Feinman, G. M., & Nicholas, L. M. (2012). The late prehispanic economy of the valley of Oaxaca, Mexico: Weaving threads from data, theory, and subsequent history. Research in Economic Anthropology, 32, 225–258.Google Scholar
  55. Feinman, G. M., & Nicholas, L. M. (2016a). Framing the rise and variability of past complex societies. In L. F. Fargher & V. Y. Heredia Espinoza (Eds.), Alternative pathways to complexity (pp. 271–289). Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  56. Feinman, G. M., & Nicholas, L. M. (2016b). After Monte Albán in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca: A reassessment. In R. K. Faulseit (Ed.), Beyond collapse: Archaeological perspectives on resilience, revitalization, and transformations in complex societies (pp. 43–69). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Folan, W. J., Fletcher, L. A., Hau, J. M., Moreles L., A., Domínguez C., M., González H., R., et al. (2008). Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico: Patterns representative of its urban capital and regional state. In A. G. Mastache, R. H. Cobean, Á. García Cook, & K. G. Hirth (Eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica (Vol. 2, pp. 285–347). Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.Google Scholar
  58. Fuentes, A. (2004). It’s not all sex and violence: Integrated anthropology and the role of cooperation and social complexity in human evolution. American Anthropologist, 106, 710–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. García Cook, Á. (2003). Cantona: The city. In A. G. Mastache, W. T. Sanders, & R. H. Cobean (Eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica (Vol. 1, pp. 311–343). Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.Google Scholar
  60. Garraty, C. P., & Stark, B. L. (Eds.). (2010). Archaeological approaches to market exchange in ancient societies. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  61. Gillespie, S. D. (1993). Power, pathways, and appropriations in Mesoamerican art. In D. S. Whitten & N. E. Whitten Jr. (Eds.), Imagery and creativity: Ethnoaesthetics and art worlds in the Americas (pp. 67–107). Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  62. Grant, J. (2004). Sustainable urbanism in historical perspective. In A. Sorensen, P. J. Marcutullio, & J. Grant (Eds.), Towards sustainable cities: East Asian, North American, and European perspectives on managing urban regions (pp. 24–37). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  63. Grove, D. C. (Ed.). (1987). Ancient Chalcatzingo. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  64. Hassig, R. (1992). War and society in ancient Mesoamerica. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  65. Haviland, W. A. (2008). Tikal, Guatemala: A Maya way to urbanism. In A. G. Mastache, R. H. Cobean, Á. García Cook, & K. G. Hirth (Eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica (Vol. 2, pp. 259–283). Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.Google Scholar
  66. Healan, D. M. (2012). The archaeology of Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. Journal of Archaeological Research, 20, 53–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hedström, P., & Swedberg, R. (1996). Social mechanisms. Acta Sociologica, 39, 281–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hirth, K. G. (2003). Ancient urbanism at Xochicalco: The evolution and organization of a pre-Hispanic society. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  69. Hirth, K. G. (Ed.). (2009). Housework: Craft production and domestic economy in ancient Mesoamerica. Archeological Papers 19. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  70. Hirth, K. G., & Pillsbury, J. (Eds.). (2013). Merchants, markets, and exchange in the pre-Columbian world. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.Google Scholar
  71. Joyce, A. A., Workinger, A. G., Hamann, B., Kroefges, P., Oland, M., & King, S. M. (2004). Lord 8 Deer ‘Jaguar Claw’ and the land of the sky: The archaeology and history of Tututepec. Latin American Antiquity, 15, 273–297.Google Scholar
  72. Klinenberg, E. (2018). Palaces for the people. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
  73. Kowalewski, S. A. (2012). A theory of the ancient Mesoamerican economy. Research in Economic Anthropology, 32, 187–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Levi, M. (1988). Of rule and revenue. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  75. Levine, M. N. (2017). Tututepec: A Mixtec imperial capital in southern Oaxaca. In D. L. Nichols & E. Rodríguez-Alegría (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the Aztecs (pp. 509–521). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Magnoni, A., Ardren, T., Hutson, S. R., & Dahlin, B. H. (2012). Living in the city: Settlement patterns and the urban experience at Classic period Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica, 23, 313–343.Google Scholar
  77. Marcus, J. (2012). Maya political cycling and the story of the Kaan polity. In G. E. Braswell (Ed.), The ancient Maya of Mexico: Interpreting the past of the northern Maya Lowlands (pp. 88–114). Sheffield: Equinox Publishing.Google Scholar
  78. Marx, K. (1971). A contribution to the critique of political economy. London: Lawrence and Wishart.Google Scholar
  79. Mastache, A. G., & Cobean, R. H. (2003). Urbanism at Tula. In A. G. Mastache, W. T. Sanders, & R. H. Cobean (Eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica (Vol. 1, pp. 217–255). Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.Google Scholar
  80. Mead, M. (Ed.). (1937). Cooperation and competition among primitive peoples. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.Google Scholar
  81. Melis, A. P., & Semmann, D. (2010). How is human cooperation different? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 365, 2663–2674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Middleton, G. (2012). Nothing lasts forever: Environmental discourses on the collapse of past societies. Journal of Archaeological Research, 20, 257–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Moore, M. (2004). Revenues, state formation, and the quality of governance in developing countries. International Political Science Review, 25, 297–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Morris, I. (2010). Why the west rules—For now: The patterns of history, and what they reveal about the future. New York: Picador.Google Scholar
  85. Nassaney, M. S., & Sassaman, K. E. (1995). Introduction: Understanding native American interactions. In M. S. Nassaney & K. E. Sassaman (Eds.), Native American interactions: Multiscalar analyses and interpretations in the Eastern Woodlands (pp. xix–xxxviii). Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
  86. Offner, J. (1981a). On the inapplicability of ‘oriental despotism’ and the Asiatic mode of production to the Aztecs of Texcoco. American Antiquity, 46, 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Offner, J. (1981b). On Carrasco’s use of “first principles.” American Antiquity, 46, 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Olson, M. (1965). The logic of collective action: Public goods and the theory of groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Palerm, Á., & Wolf, E. R. (1957). Ecological potential and cultural development in Mesoamerica. Pan American Union Social Science Monograph, 3, 1–37.Google Scholar
  90. Palerm, J. V. (2017). The greatest generation: Apropos of Sidney Mintz. American Ethnologist, 44, 414–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pastrana, A., & Ramírez, F. (2012). Reinterpretando Cuicuilco. Paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Society of American Archaeology, Memphis.Google Scholar
  92. Peraza Lope, C., Masson, M. A., Hare, T. S., & Delgado Kú, P. C. (2006). The chronology of Mayapan: New radiocarbon evidence. Ancient Mesoamerica, 17, 153–175.Google Scholar
  93. Peregrine, P. N. (2017). Political participation and long-term resilience in pre-Columbian societies. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 26, 314–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pérez, V., Anderson, K. C., & Neff, M. K. (2011). The Cerro Jazmín archaeological project: Investigating prehispanic urbanism and its environmental impact in the Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca. Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology, 36, 83–99.Google Scholar
  95. Plunket, P., & Uruñuela, G. (2005). Recent research in Puebla prehistory. Journal of Archaeological Research, 13, 89–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Plunket, P., & Uruñuela, G. (2012). Where east meets west: The Formative in Mexico’s Central Highlands. Journal of Archaeological Research, 20, 1–51.Google Scholar
  97. Pohl, J. M. D. (2003). Creation stories, hero cults, and alliance building: Confederacies of central and southern Mexico. In M. E. Smith & F. F. Berdan (Eds.), The Postclassic Mesoamerican world (pp. 61–66). Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  98. Polanyi, K., Arensberg, C., & Pearson, H. (Eds.). (1957). Trade and market in early empires. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  99. Pool, C. A. (2010). Stone monuments and earthen mounds: Polity and placemaking at Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico. In J. E. Clark, J. Guernsey, & B. Arroyo (Eds.), The place of stone monuments: Context, use, and meaning in Mesoamerica’s Preclassic transition (pp. 97–126). Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.Google Scholar
  100. Pool, C. A., & Loughlin, M. L. (2015). Early urbanization in the Formative Gulf Lowlands, Mexico. Paper presented at the Early Mesoamerican Urbanism Conference, Antigua, Guatemala.Google Scholar
  101. Pool, C. A., & Loughlin, M. L. (2016). Tres Zapotes: The evolution of a resilient polity in the Olmec heartland of Mexico. In R. K. Faulseit (Ed.), Beyond collapse: Archaeological perspectives on resilience, revitalization, and transformation in complex societies (pp. 287–312). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Rust, W. F. (1992). New ceremonial and settlement evidence at La Venta, and its relation to Preclassic Maya cultures. In E. C. Danien & R. J. Sharer (Eds.), New theories on the ancient Maya (pp. 123–129). University Museum Monograph 77. Philadelphia, PA: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  103. Rust, W. F. (2008). A settlement survey of La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  104. Sanders, W. T., & Price, B. J. (1968). Mesoamerica: The evolution of a civilization. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  105. Serra Puche, C. M. (2012). Xochitécatl (2nd ed.). Tlaxcala, Mexico: Instituto de la Cultura.Google Scholar
  106. Serra Puche, C. M., & Lazcano, J. C. (2008). Urban configuration at Cacaxtla-Xochitecatl. In A. G. Mastache, R. H. Cobean, Á. García Cook, & K. G. Hirth (Eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica (Vol. 2, pp. 133–164). Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología.Google Scholar
  107. Serra Puche, C. M., & Lazcano, J. C. (2011). Vida cotidiana, Xochitécatl-Cacaxtla: Días, años, milenios. Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Google Scholar
  108. Smith, M. E. (2008). Aztec city-state capitals. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  109. Smith, M. E. (2015). The Aztec empire. In A. Monson & W. Scheidel (Eds.), Fiscal regimes and the political economy of premodern states (pp. 71–114). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith, M. L. (2005). Networks, territories, and the cartography of ancient states. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95, 832–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sterelny, K. (2013). Cooperation in a complex world: The role of proximate factors in ultimate explanations. Biological Theory, 7, 358–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Steward, J. H. (1949). Cultural causality and law: A trial formulation of the development of early civilizations. American Anthropologist, 51, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tourtellot, G. (1990). Population estimates for Preclassic and Classic Seibal, Peten. In T. P. Culbert & D. S. Rice (Eds.), Precolumbian population history in the Maya Lowlands (pp. 83–102). Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  114. Trigger, B. G. (1989). A history of archaeological thought. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Trigger, B. G. (2003). Understanding early civilizations. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Turchin, P. (2003). Historical dynamics: Why states rise and fall. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Turner II, B. L. (1990). Population reconstruction for the central Maya Lowlands: 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1500. In T. P. Culbert & D. S. Rice (Eds.), Precolumbian population history in the Maya Lowlands (pp. 301–324). Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  118. Uruñuela, G., Plunket, P., & Robles, A. (2009). Cholula: Art and architecture of an archetypal city. In W. L. Fash & L. López Luján (Eds.), The art of urbanism: How Mesoamerican kingdoms represented themselves in architecture and imagery (pp. 135–171). Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.Google Scholar
  119. Wade, L. (2017). Unearthing democracy’s roots. Science, 355, 1114–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Webster, D. (2008). The regional setting of the 8th century Copán polity: Implications for Maya urbanism. In A. G. Mastache, R. H. Cobean, Á. García Cook, & K. G. Hirth (Eds.), Urbanism in Mesoamerica (Vol. 2, pp. 227–258). Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.Google Scholar
  121. Wilken, G. C. (1987). Good farmers: Traditional agricultural resource management in Mexico and Central America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  122. Wittfogel, K. (1957). Oriental despotism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Wolf, E. R. (Ed.). (1976). The Valley of Mexico: Studies in pre-Hispanic ecology and society. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  124. Wolf, E. R. (1982). Europe and the people without history. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  125. Wolf, E. R. (1994). Explaining Mesoamerica. Social Anthropology, 2, 1–17.Google Scholar
  126. Wright, H. T. (1989). Rise of civilizations: Mesopotamia to Mesoamerica. Archaeology, 42(1), 46–48, 96–100.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Integrative Research CenterField Museum of Natural HistoryChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations