Calcium Stone: Pathophysiology, Prevention, and Medical Management

  • Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Md Adnan
  • Sagar U. NigwekarEmail author
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


Calcium stones such as calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate represent the most frequent type of stones encountered in stone-forming patients. Underlying medical conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and conditions that promote hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, and hypocitraturia have been recognized as risk factors for stone recurrence. Genetic links to stone recurrence have been proposed in newer publications. Diagnosis of calcium stone can be made with varying sensitivity and specificity by kidney ultrasound; radiography of the kidney, ureter, and bladder; and non-contrast computed tomography. Many of these stones may pass spontaneously. Medical therapy for stone expulsion such as alpha-blocker may be useful in certain situations. Depending on the size and location of calcium stone, surgical treatment can be instigated for stone removal. Stone analysis should be done in all stone-forming patients, along with basic investigations to identify possible underlying medical problems. Those with high likelihood of stone recurrence should undergo further metabolic investigations so that specific advice can be given to avoid stone recurrence.

Nephrolithiasis is an ancient disease that has been described in a 5000-year-old mummy by an English archeologist, E. Smith, in 1901. Treatment for kidney stones was mentioned throughout the ages, in ancient India’s writing of Sushruta, Hippocrates in Greece, and Rhazes and Albucasis in Cordoba during the tenth–eleventh century, before being transferred to Europe during the Renaissance period (Tefekli and Cezayirli, ScientificWorldJournal 2013:423964, 2013).


Calcium oxalate Calcium phosphate Hyperoxaluria Obesity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Md Adnan
    • 1
  • Sagar U. Nigwekar
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.University Malaya Medical CentreKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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