Basics of Kidney Stones: Dietary Risk Factors of Kidney Stones

  • Rania El Tawil
  • Zeina Bachir
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


Kidney stones may form when substances such as calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus become highly concentrated in the urine. One of the major factors that can either promote or inhibit kidney stone formation is the dietary consumption of nutrients and fluids. People with a history of kidney stones should consume enough fluids to produce at least 2 liters of urine per day. Sodium intake and subsequent urinary excretion increase urine calcium, which may combine with oxalate and phosphorus to form stones. Animal protein that contains purines increases uric acid in the urine. Modifications in dietary intake may help lower the risk of forming stones and should be tailored to stone type when known. General recommendations for management and prevention of recurrence of kidney stones include adequate fluid intake, restricting sodium and animal protein intake, and weight loss if necessary.


Nephrolithiasis Calcium oxalate Uric acid stone Fluid intake Animal protein 



Body mass index


Calcium oxalate


Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension


Supersaturation calcium oxalate


Uric acid


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rania El Tawil
    • 1
  • Zeina Bachir
    • 2
  1. 1.Nutrition HouseOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Burj Views, Tower CDubaiUnited Arab Emirates

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