Medical Nutrition Therapy and Evidence-Based Practice

  • Rosa K. HandEmail author
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


Evidence-based practice in medical nutrition therapy for kidney stones involves staying up-to-date on evidence-based practice guidelines. However, because there are limited practice guidelines in this area, it may be necessary to search and evaluate the primary literature to make practice decisions. Searching the literature starts with writing a question in PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) format. Search results are then evaluated based on the study design, with randomized controlled trials considered to provide the best evidence. When primary literature is unavailable, strategies are reviewed for practitioners to systematically collect outcomes from their own practice in order to advance knowledge in this area.


Evidence-based practice Evidence-based guidelines Hierarchy of evidence Research design Systematic reviews 


  1. 1.
    Definition of Terms Workgroup of the Quality Management Committee. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Definition of Terms List. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Updated 2017. Accessed 1 Dec 2017.
  2. 2.
    National Guideline Clearinghouse. Inclusion criteria. Updated 2017. Accessed 1 Dec 2017.
  3. 3.
    Pearle MS, Goldfarb DS, Assimos DG, et al. Medical management of kidney stones: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2014;192(2):316–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fink HA, Wilt TJ, Eidman KE, et al. AHRQ comparative effectiveness review number 61: recurrent nephrolithiasis in adults: comparative effectiveness of preventive medical strategies. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012; Report no. 12-EHC049-EF.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ. 2008;336(7650):924–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Handu D, Moloney L, Wolfram T, Ziegler P, Acosta A, Steiber A. Academy of nutrition and dietetics methodology for conducting systematic reviews for the evidence analysis library. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(2):311–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Core Curriculum in Nephrology. Updated 2017. Accessed 1 Dec 2017.
  8. 8.
    Pfau A, Knauf F. Update on nephrolithiasis: core curriculum 2016. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016;68(6):973–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Library. Evidence analysis manual: steps in the academy evidence analysis process. 2016. Available from
  10. 10.
    Boushey C, Harris J, Bruemmer B, Archer SL, Van Horn L. Publishing nutrition research: a review of study design, statistical analyses, and other key elements of manuscript preparation, part 1. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(1):89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bruemmer B, Harris J, Gleason P, et al. Publishing nutrition research: a review of epidemiologic methods. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(10):1728–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Swan WI, Vivanti A, Hakel-Smith NA, et al. Nutrition care process and model update: toward realizing people-centered care and outcomes management. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017;117(12):2003–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(6):393–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Molinar LS, Childers AF, Hoggle L, Kent S, Porter H, Rusnak S. Informatics initiatives at the academy of nutrition and dietetics. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017;117(8):1293–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Murphy WJ, Steiber AL. A new breed of evidence and the tools to generate it: introducing ANDHII. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(1):19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Code of federal regulations title 45 public welfare, department of health and human services part 46 protection of human subjects.
  17. 17.
    Morris PE, Dracup K. Quality improvement or research? the ethics of hospital project oversight. Am J Crit Care. 2007;16(5):424–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hand RK. Research in nutrition and dietetics-what can the academy do for you? J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(1):131–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hand RK, Lawless ME, Deming N, Steiber AL. Development and pilot testing of a human subjects protection training course unique to registered dietitian nutritionists. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(12):2009–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NutritionCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations