Gastrointestinal (GI) health and function may contribute to the development of kidney stones. The GI tract provides nutrients via the multiphasic process of digestion. The gut and its resident microbes also modulate immune function and produce several vitamins and nutrients. Oxalate transport carriers have been identified throughout the digestive system. The bacteria in the intestinal tract perform a number of crucial functions, including digesting otherwise indigestible carbohydrates, stimulating the immune system, fending off colonization of pathogens, and directing the body to store fats. The composition of food that passes through the gut changes the microbiome which can affect the health of the host. Inflammatory diseases of the digestive system or surgical changes to the length of the gastrointestinal system have been shown to increase the risk for kidney stone formation. Generally a diet that protects against cardiovascular disease (less meat, salt, and processed foods plus more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) promotes an improved microflora and also prevents kidney stone formation.
Digestion Gastrointestinal health Probiotics Prebiotics Microbiome Hyperoxaluria Bowel disease
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